Urolithiasis pp 997-1001 | Cite as

High Voltage Electron Microscopy of Urinary Calculi

  • M. Spector
  • J. C. Lilga


Over the years many different physical and chemical techniques have been employed in investigations of the composition and structure of renal stones. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) have been implemented in studies of the ultrastructure of urinary calculi1–4. TEM and associated selected area electron diffraction techniques have the unique potential of providing direct evidence of mechanisms, such as epitaxy, which have been proposed as being the key to stone formation. However, the considerable difficulties associated with ultramicrotomy and TEM of urinary stones have hindered progress in this area. In recent years, high voltage transmission electron microscopy5 (HVEM; 800–1000kV) has been employed for the study of materials which do not lend themselves to investigation with conventional TEM (e.g. 100kV). The objective of the present study was to implement HVEM in the study of the ultrastructure of urinary calculi.


Calcium Oxalate Renal Stone Urinary Stone Urinary Calculus High Voltage Electron Microscopy 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Spector
    • 1
  • J. C. Lilga
    • 1
  1. 1.Medical University of South CarolinaCharlestonUSA

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