Hypercalcemia and the Kidney
Infrequently, the kidney may be involved in the etiology of hypercalcemia as might occur in diuretic-induced hypercalcemia (1) or the hypercalcemia of adrenal insufficiency (2), in which hypocalciuria and sodium and water diuresis may play a role. In these circumstances, the kidney may be considered the culprit in hypercalcemia. More often, however, the kidney is the victim of hypercalcemia suffering a number of derangements in hemodynamics and tubular function. The focus of this review shall be on the derangements in the structure and function of the kidney in hypercalcemic states. The spectrum of disorders of renal function and structure in hypercalcemia is summarized in Table 1. It is evident that a wide-range of renal derangements is observed in hypercalcemia. Consequently, only a few of these derangements will be the subject of a more detailed discussion.
KeywordsPrimary Hyperparathyroidism Phorbol Myristate Acetate Metabolic Alkalosis Renal Plasma Flow Proximal Convoluted Tubule
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