Respiratory Modulation of Cardiovascular Responses to Stimulation of Carotid Chemoreceptors and Other Receptors

  • M. de Burgh Daly


The reflex regulation of respiration by the carotid and aortic body chemoreceptors has been extensively reviewed (Heymans and Neil, 1958). The peripheral arterial chemoreceptors are also concerned with the regulation of the cardiovascular system, but the way this is achieved is complex, largely because of the integrative nature of the mechanisms controlling the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Thus, the observed changes in heart rate, cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance resulting from excitation of the carotid or aortic bodies are due, on the one hand, to direct or primary reflex effects of stimulation of the chemoreceptors themselves and, on the other, to secondary effects on the circulation occurring as a result of the concomitant changes in pulmonary ventilation (Daly, 1983, 1986). Furthermore, in any disturbance of the circulation in which the peripheral arterial chemoi;eceptors are involved, it is inevitable that several other groups of receptors with different reflex functions will be affected simultaneously. The pattern of autonomic effector activity that results, however, is not necessarily due to the algebraic summation of individual effector outputs from specific groups of receptors. This is because the effectiveness of incoming receptor impulses can be influenced centrally by changes in respiration (Spyer, 1982, 1984; Daly, 1983, 1986) and activity of the hypothalamic defence area (Spyer, 1984; Marshall, 1986). Thus, the observed response pattern to excitation of a sensory input will be determined by mechanisms arising from the direction and magnitude of the accompanying change in pulmonary ventilation. These respiratory mechanisms include alterations in central respiratory neuronal activity, activity of slowly adapting pulmonary stretch receptors, and the level of the arterial PCO2. They can modify the autonomic outflow directly and by modifying centrally the effectiveness of reflex responses engendered by excitation of specific groups of receptors, including the peripheral chemoreceptors.


Carotid Body Pulmonary Ventilation Lung Inflation Arterial Baroreflex Total Peripheral Vascular Resistance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adrian, E. D., Bronk, D. W., and Phillips, G., 1932, Discharges in mammalian sympathetic nerves,J. Physiol., 74:115.Google Scholar
  2. Daly, M. de B., 1983, Peripheral arterial and chemoreceptors and the cardiovascular system, “Physiology of Peripheral Arterial Chemoreceptors,” H. Acker and R.G. O’Regan, eds., Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  3. Daly, M. de B., 1984, Breath-hold diving: mechanisms of cardiovascular adjustments in the mammal, Uz “Recent Advances in Physiology, Vol. 10,” P. F. Baker, ed., Churchill-Livingstone, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  4. Daly, M. de B., 1986, Interactions between respiration and circulation, in: “Handbook of Physiology, Section 3, The Respiratory System, Vol. 2, Control of Breathing, Part II,” N. S. Cherniack and J. G. Widdicombe, eds., Am. Physiological Society, Bethesda.Google Scholar
  5. Daly, M. de B., and Kirkman, E., 1988a, Cardiovascular responses to pulmonary C fibres in the cat: their modulation by changes in respiration,J. Physiol., 402:43.Google Scholar
  6. Daly, M. de B., and Kirkman, E., 1988b, Differential modulation by lung inflation of the reflex cardio-inhibitory responses to separate stimulation of various cardiovascular receptors in the cat,J. Physiol., 399:33P.Google Scholar
  7. Daly, M. de B., and Kirkman, E., 1989, Differential modulation by pulmonary stretch afferents of some reflex cardioinhibitory responses in the cat,J.Physiol., (in Press).Google Scholar
  8. Daly, M. de B., Kirkman, E., and Wood, L. M., 1988, CardiovascularGoogle Scholar
  9. responses to stimulation of cariac receptors in the cat and their modification by changes in respiration,J. Physiol., 407:349.Google Scholar
  10. Daly, M. de B., Korner, P. I., Angell-James, J. E., and Oliver, J. R., 1978, Cardiovascular-respiratory reflex interactions between carotid bodies and upper airways receptors in the monkey.Am. J. Physiol., 234:H293.Google Scholar
  11. Daly, M. de B., Ward, J., and Wood, L. M., 1986, Modification by lungGoogle Scholar
  12. inflation of the vascular responses from the carotid body chemoreceptors and other receptors in dogs,J. Physiol., 378:13.Google Scholar
  13. Dawes, G. S., 1947, Studies in veratrum alkaloids. VII. Receptor areas in the coronary arteries and elsewhere as revealed by the use of veratridine,J. Pharmacol. Exp. Therap., 89:325.Google Scholar
  14. Gilbey, M. P., Numao, Y., and Spyer, K. M., 1986, Discharge patterns of cetvical sympathetic preganglionic neurones related to central respiratory drive in the rat,J. Physiol., 378:253.Google Scholar
  15. Heymans, C., and Neil, E., 1958, “Reflexogenic Areas of the Cardiovascular System,” Churchill, London.Google Scholar
  16. Jordan, D., and Spyer, K. M., 1979, Studies on the excitability of sinus nerve afferent terminals,J. Physiol., 297:123.Google Scholar
  17. Jordan, D., and Spyer, K. M., 1986, Brainstem integration of cardiovascular and pulmonary afferent activity,in: “Progress in Brain Research, Vol. 67,” P. Cervero and J. F. B. Morrison, eds., Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  18. Koepchen, H. P., and Thurau, K., 1958, Untersuchungen über Zusammenhänge zwischen Blutdruckwellen und Ateminnervation.Arch. Ges. Physiol., 267:10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Marshall, J. M., 1987, Contribution to overall cardiovascular control made by the chemoreceptor-induced alerting/defence response, iji: “Neurobiology of the Cardiorespiratory System,” E. W. Taylor, ed. Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  20. McGregor, K. H., Hainsworth, R., and Ford, R., 1986, Hindlimb vascular responses in anaesthetised dogs to aortic root injections of veratridine,Q. J. Exp. Physiol., 71:577.Google Scholar
  21. Potter, E. K., 1981, Inspiratory inhibition of vagal responses to barore- ceptor and chemoreceptor stimuli in the dog,J. Physiol., 316:177.Google Scholar
  22. Spyer, K. M., 1981, Neural organisation and control of the baroreceptor reflex.Rev. Physiol., Biochem. Pharmacol., 88:24.Google Scholar
  23. Spyer, K. M., 1982, Central nervous integration of cardiovascular control.J. Exp. Biol., 100:109.Google Scholar
  24. Spyer, K. M., 1984, Central control of the cardiovascular system,in: “Recent Advances in Physiology,” P. F. Baker, ed., Churchill- Livingstone, Edinburgh.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. de Burgh Daly
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyRoyal Free Hospital School of MedicineLondonUK

Personalised recommendations