Responses of Sympatho-Adrenal Medullary System to Hypoxia and Hypercapnia in Anesthetized Artificially Ventilated Rats

  • D. Biesold
  • M. Kurosawa
  • A. Sato
  • A. Trzebski


Since pioneering works by Cannon and Hoskins (1911) and Czubalski (1913), it has been well established both in humans and experimental animals that adrenaline concentration in systemic blood or urine is increased and also adrenaline contents in the adrenal medulla are decreased in response to hypoxia, hypercapnia, or asphyxia (Kellaway, 1919; Houssay and Molinelle, 1926; Tenny, 1956; Becker and Kreuzer, 1968; O’Brodovich et al., 1982; Rose et al., 1983). Despite a great deal of these research efforts over 8 decades, its neural mechanisms have remained unsolved. The present experiments were undertaken to assess the contributions of the carotid chemoreceptors and the adrenal sympathetic efferent nerve to the responses of the adrenal medullary catecholamine secretion during systemic hypoxia and hypercapnia. For this purpose, we measured the adrenal sympathetic efferent nerve activity and catecholamine secretion rates from the adrenal medulla in response to systemic hypoxia and hypercapnia in two groups of animals. In one group carotid chemoreceptors were intact, and in the other group carotid chemoreceptor afferents were severed bilaterally. Furthermore, catecholamine secretion rates in response to systemic hypoxia and hypercapnia were investigated in animals whose splanchnic nerves innervating the ipsilateral adrenal gland were severed.


Secretion Rate Carotid Sinus Splanchnic Nerve Catecholamine Secretion Adrenal Chromaffin Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Araki, T., Ito, K., Kurosawa, M., and Sato, A., 1984, Responses of adrenal sympathetic nerve activity and catecholamine secretion to cutaneous stimulation in anesthetized rats,Neuroscience, 12:289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baugh, C. W., Cornett, R. W., and Hatcher, J. D., 1959, The adrenal gland and the cardiovascular changes in acute anoxic anoxia in dogs,Circ. Res., 7:513.Google Scholar
  3. Becker, E. J., and Kreuzer, F., 1968, Sympathoadrenal response to hyoxia.Pflügers Arch304:1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Biesold, D., Kurosawa, M., Sato, A., and Trzebski, A., 1989, Hypoxia and hypercapnia increase the sympathoadrenal medullary functions in anesthetized, artificially ventilated, rats,Jap.J. Physiol., (in press).Google Scholar
  5. Cannon, W. B., and Hoskins, R. G., 1911, The effects of asphyxia, hyperpnea, and sensory stimulation on adrenal secretion.Am. J. Physiol., 29:274.Google Scholar
  6. Czubalski, F., 1913, Asphyxie und Adrenalin,Zentralbl. Physiol., 27:580.Google Scholar
  7. Fukuda, Y., Sato, A., and Trzebski, A., 1987, Carotid chemo-receptor discharge responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats,J. Auton.Nerv. Syst., 19:1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Houssay, B. A., and Molinelli, E. A., 1926, Adrenal secretion produced by asphyxia.Am. J. Physiol., 76:538.Google Scholar
  9. Ito, K., Sato, A., Shimamura, K., and Swenson, R. S., 1984, Reflex changes in sympatho-adrenal medullary functions in response to baroreceptor stimulation in anesthetized rats,J.Auton. Nerv. Syst., 10:295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kellaway, C. H., 1919, The hyperglycaemia of asphyxia and the part played therein by the suprarenals,J. Physiol. (Lond.), 53:211.Google Scholar
  11. Lee, J. C., and Downing, S. E., 1983, Effects of hypercapnia on myocardial contractility in piglets,Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 174:401.Google Scholar
  12. O’Brodovich, H. M., Stalcup, S. A., Pang, L. M., and Mellins, R. B., 1982, Hemodynamic and vasoactive mediator response to experimental respiratory failure,J. Appl. Physiol., 52:1230.Google Scholar
  13. Rose, C. E. Jr., Althaus, J. A., Kaiser, D. L., Miller, E. d., and Carey, R. M., 1983, Acute hypoxemia and hypercapnia: increase in plasma catecholamines in conscious dogs.Am. J. Physiol., 245:H924.Google Scholar
  14. Seidler, F. J., and Slotkin, T. A., 1986, Ontogeny of adrenomedullary responses to hypoxia and hypoglycemia: role of splanchnic innervation,Brain Res. Bull., 16:11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Tenny, S. M., 1956, Sympatho-adrenal stimulation by carbon dioxide and the inhibitory effect of carbonic acid on epinephrine response.Am. J. Physiol., 187:341.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Biesold
    • 1
    • 2
  • M. Kurosawa
    • 1
    • 3
  • A. Sato
    • 1
  • A. Trzebski
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyTokyo Metropolitan Institute of GerontologyTokyo 173Japan
  2. 2.Department of NeurochemistryPaul Flechsig Institute of Brain Research Karl Marx UniversityLeipzigG.D.R.
  3. 3.1st Department of PhysiologyNara Medical UniversityNaraJapan
  4. 4.Department of PhysiologyWarsaw Medical AcademyWarsawPoland

Personalised recommendations