Computerized 3-D Reconstruction of Small Blood Vessels from High Voltage Electron-Micrographs of Thick Serial Cross Sections

  • L. Horn
  • W. S. Krajewski
  • P. K. Paul
  • M. J. Song
  • M. J. Sydor
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 242)

Abstract

Every cell and organ system in the body depends on the circulation of blood for appropriate nutrients, humoral message exchange, and removal of waste. The heart and the large blood vessels are indispensable as pump and plumbing. Blood flow according to tissue needs, however, and body weight economy in terms of total blood volume, requires complex control mechanisms and an intricate distribution system peripherally, particularly in the microcirculation which consists of vessels less than 100 µ. The smallest arteries and arterioles are generally considered the key vessels mediating the distribution of flow by changing their diameters and thus flow resistance. The structural aspects of these vessels thus become crucial for the understanding of the mechanisms that allow the system to operate in optimal harmony — the harmony that we call good health.

Keywords

Permeability Ethyl Prostaglandin Luminal Glutaraldehyde 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    M. Malphigi, De Pulmonibus. Trans, by J. Young 1929, Proc. Roy. Soc. Med. 23:1–4 (1661).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. Hall, A critical and experimental essay on the circulation of the blood. R.B. Seeley and W. Burnside, London, p. 22 (1831).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    F. Arnold. Handbuch der Anatomie des Menschen, Zweite Bd. Abt., Emmerling, Freiburg in Br. (1847).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    W. Spalteholz, Die Vertheilung der Blutgefässe in der Haut, Arch. f. Anat. u. Entwicklungsgesch. (Anat. Abst.) 1–54, Leibzig (1893).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    A. Krogh, The Anatomy and Physiology of Capillaries, Yale Univ. Press New Haven (1929).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    B.W. Zweifach, The structure and reaction of the small blood vessels in amphibia. Am. J. Anat. 60:473–514 (1937).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    R. Chambers and B.W. Zweifach, The topography and function of the mesenteric capillary microcirculation, Am. J. Anat. 75:173–205 (1944).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. M.H. Knisely. The histopathology of peripheral vascular beds. In F.R. Moulton (ed.) Blood, Heart, and Circulation, pp. 303–307. Publ. No. 13, A.A.A.S. The Science Press, Lancaster, PA.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    P.I. Branemark and E. Eriksson, Method for studying qualitative and quantitative changes of blood flow in skeletal muscle. Acta Physiol, Scand. 84:284–288 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    B.W. Zweifach, Introduction, Perspectives in microcirculation. In Kaley, G. and B.M. Altura (eds.) Microcirculation. Vol. 1; Univ. Park Press. Baltimore (1977).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    H.S. Bennett, J.H. Luft and J.C. Hampton, Morphological classifications of vertebrate blood capillaries, Am. J. Physiol. 196:381–390 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    D.W. Fawcett, The fine structure of capillaries and small arteries. In S.R.M. Reynolds and B.W. Zweifach (eds.), THE MICROCIRCULATION. Univ. Illinois Press, Urbana, IL. pp. 1–13 (1959).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    G.E. Palade, Blood capillaries of the heart and other organs, Circulation 24:368–384 (1961).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    J.A.G. Rhodin, Ultrastructure of mammalian venous capillaries, venules, and small collecting veins, J. Ultrastruc. Res. 25:452–500 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    J.A.G. Rhodin, The ultrastructure of mammalian arterioles and precapillary sphincters, J. Ultrastruc. Res. 18:181–223 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. Björk, Microvascular reactions in acute inflammation. An intravital microscopy study in thehamster, Acta Univ. Upsaliensis, Thesis, ISSN 0345–0058, ISBN 91–554-1551–2, Upsala, Sweden (1984).Google Scholar
  17. J.T. OTlaherty, Biology of Disease. Lipid mediators of inflammation and allergy. Lab. Invest. 47:314–329 (1982).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    R.F. Furchgott, The role of endothelium in the responses of vascular smooth muscle to drugs, A. Rev. Pharmac. Tox. 24:175–197 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    N. Chung Welch, D. Shepro, B. Dunham and H.B. Hectman, Prostacylclin and prostaglandin E2 secretion by bovine pulmonary microvessel endothelium cells are altered by changes in culture conditions,Cell Physiol. In press (1988).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    M.E. Todd, C.G. Laye and D.N. Osborne, The dimensional characteristics of smooth muscle in rat blood vessels. A Computer-Assisted Analysis,Circ. Res. 53:319–331 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    M. Marco, A. Leith and D.F. Parsons, Three-dimensional reconstruction of cells from serial sections and whole-cell mounts using multilevel contouring of stereo micrographs, J. Electron Microsc. Tech, In press (1988).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    E.R. Macagno, C. Levinthal and I. Sobel, Three-dimensional computer reconstruction of neurons and neuronal assemblies, Ann. Rev. Biphys. Bioeng. 5:323–351 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    M.S. Braverman and I.M. Braverman, Three dimensional reconstructions of objects from serial sections using a microcomputer graphics system, J. Investig. Dermatology 86:290–294 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    J.A.G. Rhodin, Perfusion and superfusion fixation effects on rat mesentery microvascular beds. Intravital and electron Microscope Analyses, J. Submicrosc. Cytol. 18:453–470 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    E.K. Fram, 3-D Reconstruction, Seeing Beyond, PC Magazine, August 20, pp. 170–174 (1985).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    P.B. Canham, R.M. Henderson and M.W. Peters, Coalignment of the muscle cell and nucleus, cell geometry and Vv in the tunica media of monkey cerebral arteries, by electron microscopy, J. Microsc. 127:311–319 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Horn
    • 1
  • W. S. Krajewski
    • 2
  • P. K. Paul
    • 2
  • M. J. Song
    • 3
  • M. J. Sydor
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyUMDNJ-New Jersey Medical SchoolNewarkUSA
  2. 2.Grad. Div. of Biomed. EngineeringNJITNewarkUSA
  3. 3.Wadsworth Center for Laboratories and ResearchNew York State Department of HealthAlbanyUSA

Personalised recommendations