Advertisement

Morphometric Studies on Human Leukocyte Granules

  • Geert W. Schmid-Schönbein
  • Shu Chien
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 242)

Abstract

The lysosomal granules’ play an important role in the inflammatory process,2 and a rather detailed picture of their biochemistry, formation and physiology has been drawn.3 The granules are carriers of histamine, heparin and serotonin in eosinophils and basophils and the source of lytic enzymes in neutrophils.4 These granules serve an important function in phagocytosis by contributing to the enzymatic digestion of engulfed microorganisms, and they provide a source of preformed membrane area which may be recruited in certain forms of phagocytosis or during cell spreading on substrates. Although the granules and other cell organelles have been subjected to detailed ultrastructural investigations,5–8 quantitative information on granule membrane area, size, and distribution are limited; quantitative granule studies have been applied only to cells other than the circulating leukocytes.9

Keywords

Membrane Area Granule Density Random Section Isotonic Medium Golgi Region 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    J. Berthet and C. Deduve, Tissue fractionation studies I. The existence of a mitochondria-linked, enzymaticaily inactive form of acid phosphatase in rat-liver tissue, Biochem. J. 50:174 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. Hirschhorn, Lysosomal mechanism in the inflammatory process, in “The Inflammatory Process”, B.W. Zweifach, L. Grant, R.T. McCluskey, eds.. Academic Press, New York (1974).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J.G. Hirsch, Neutrophil leukocytes, in: “The Inflammatory Process”, B.W. Zweifach, L. Grant, R.T. McCluskey, eds., Academic Press, New York (1974).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. Baggiolini, The enzymes of the granules of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and their functions. Enzyme, 13:131 (1972).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    D.F. Bainton and M.G. Farquhar, Origin of granules in polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Two types derived from opposite faces of the Golgi complex in developing granulocytes, J. Cell Biol. 28:277 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    D.F. Bainton and M.G. Farquhar, Segregation and packing of granule enzymes in eosinophic leu kocytes, J. Cell Biol. 45:54 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    F. Miller, E. Deharven and G.E. Palade, The structure of eosinophil leukocyte granules in rodents and in man, J. Cell Biol. 31:349 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    S.S. Spicer and J.H. Hardin, Ultrastructure, cytochemistry, and function of neutrophilic leukocytegranules. Lob. Invest. 20:488 (1969).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Sato, M. Yonemaru and S. Sonoda, Quantitative analysis of secretory granules of the STH-cell in the rat hypophysis, in “Recent Progress in Electron Microscopy of Cells and Tissues”, E. Yamada V. Mizuhira, K. Kurosumi, T. Nagano, eds.. University Park Press, Baltimore and London (1976).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    S.I. Simon and G.W. Schmid-Schönbein, Biophysical aspects of microsphere engulfment by human neutrophils, Biophys. J. in press (1987).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    G.W. Schmid-Schönbein and S. Chien, Morphometry of human leukocyte granules, Biorheology, in press (1988).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    E. Underwood, “Quantitative Stereology”, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts (1970).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    R.L. Fullman, Measurement of particle sizes in opaque bodies, J. Metals. 19 7:447 (1953).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    G.W. Schmid-Schönbein, Rheology of leukkocytes, in “Bioengineering”, S. Chien, R. Skalak, eds., McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York (1987).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    G.W. Schmid-Schönbein, Y.Y. Shih and S. Chien, Morphometry of human leukocytes. Blood 56:866–875 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    C. Deduve, The lysosome concept, in “Ciba Foundation Symposium on Lysosomes”, A.V.S. deReuck, M.P. Cameron, eds.. Little Brown and Co., Boston (1963).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    C. Dong, G.W. Schmid-Schönbein and R. Skalak, Rheological behavior of leukocytes, in “Troc. 1985 Biomechanics Symposium”, D. Bulter, T.K. Hung, R.E. Mates, eds.. Joint ASCE/ASME Mechanics Conference, Albuquerque, New Mexico (1987).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    E.A. Evans, Structural model for passive granulocyte behavior based on mechanical deformation and recovery after deformation tests, in “White Cell Mechanics: Basic Science and Clinical Aspects”, H.J. Meiselman, M.A. Lichtman, P.L. LaCelle, eds., Alan Liss, New York (1984).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    D.F. Bainton, J.L. Ullyot and M.G. Farquhar, The development of neutrophilic polymorphonu clear leukocytes in human bone marrow. Origin and content of azurophil and specific granules, J. Exp. Med. 13 4:907 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    U. Bretz and M. Baggiolini, Biochemical and morphological characterization of asurophil and specificgranules of human neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes, J. Cell Biol. 63:251 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    G. Murphy, U. Bretz, M. Baggiolini and J.J. Reynolds, The latent collagenase and gelatinase of human polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes, Biochem. J. 19 2:517 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    B. Dewald, U. Bretz and M. Baggiolini, Exocytosis induced in neutrophils by chemotactic agents and other stimuli, in “Leukocyte Locomotion and Chemotaxis” Agents and Actions Supplements, H. Kellar, G.O. Till, eds., Birkhauser Verlag, Basel (1983).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    K.L.P. Sung, G.W. Schmid-Schönbein, R. Skalak, G.B. Schuessler, S. Usami and S. Chien, Influence of physicochemical factors on rheology of human neutrophils, Biophys. J, 39:101–106 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    G.W. Schmid-Schönbein, K.-M. Jan, R. Skalak and S. Chien, Deformation of leukocytes on a hematological blood film, Biorheology 21:767 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    J. Boyle and D.F. Bainton, Changing patterns of plasma membrane-associated filaments during the initial phases of polymorphonuclear leukocyte adherence, J. Cell Boil. 82:347 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Geert W. Schmid-Schönbein
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shu Chien
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Biomedical SicencesAcademia SinicaTaipei, 11529Taiwan, R.O.C
  2. 2.Department of Applied Mechanics and Engineering Sciences — BioengineeringUniversity of CaliforniaSan Diego, La JollaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Physiology and Cellular Biophysics, College of Physicians and SurgeonsColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations