Pathogenesis and Significance of Urogenital Mycoplasmal Infections

  • G. H. Cassell
  • J. K. Davis
  • K. B. Waites
  • P. T. Rudd
  • D. Talkington
  • D. Crouse
  • S. A. Horowitz
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 224)


Of the seven species of mycoplasmas isolated from the urogenital tract of humans, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis are the ones found most commonly and are the only two known to cause disease (1–3). Mycoplasma genitalium is a newly identified species first isolated from males with urethritis (4–6). Serological studies of females with pelvic inflammatory disease (7) and experimental inoculation of primates (8–10) suggest that this organism may also be pathogenic for humans, although its prevalence is unknown.


Amniotic Fluid Septic Arthritis Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Chronic Prostatitis Isolation Rate 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Taylor-Robinson, D. and W.M. McCormack, The genital mycoplasmas. N. Engl. J. Med. 302:1003,1063, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    McCormack, W.M. and D. Taylor-Robinson, The genital mycoplasmas in sexually transmitted diseases. K.K. Holmes, P.A. Mardh, P.F. Sparling, and P.J. Wiesner, Eds., McGraw-Hill Company, New York, pp. 408–419, 1984.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cassell, G.H. and B.C. Cole, Mycoplasmas as agents of human disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 304:80, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tully, J.G., D. Taylor-Robinson, R.M. Cole, et al., A newly discovered mycoplasma in the human urogenital tract. Lancet 1:1288, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Taylor-Robinson, D., J.G. Tully, P.M. Furr, et al,. Urogenital mycoplasma infection of man: a review with observations on a recently discovered mycoplasma. Isr. J. Med. Sci. 17:524, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tully, J.G., D. Taylor-Robinson, D.L. Rose, et al., Mycoplasma genitalium, a new species from the human urogenital tract. Int. J. Syst. Bacterid 33:387, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Moller, B.R., D. Taylor-Robinson and P.M. Furr, Serological evidence implicating Mycoplasma genitalium in pelvic inflammatory disease. Lancet i:1102, 1984.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Taylor-Robinson, D., P.M. Furr and C.M. Hetherington, The pathogenicity of a newly discovered human mycoplasma (strain G37) for the genital tract of marmosets. J. Hyg. 89:449, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Moller, B.R., D. Taylor-Robinson, P.M. Furr, et al. Acute upper genital-tract disease in female monkeys provoked experimentally by Mycoplasma genitalium. Brit. J. Exp. Pathol. 66:417, 1985.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Taylor-Robinson, D., J.G. Tully and M.F. Barile, Urethral infection in male chimpanzees produced experimentally by Mycoplasma genitalium. Brit. J. Exp. Pathol. 66:95, 1985.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    McCormack, W.M. Epidemiology of Mycoplasma hominis. Sex. Trans. Dis. 4(suppl):261, 1983.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Klein, J.O., D. Buckland and M. Finland, Colonization of newborn infants by mycoplasmas. N. Engl. J. Med. 280:1025, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Braun, P., Y-H Lee, J.O. Klein et al., Birth weight and genital mycoplasmas in pregnancy. N.J. Engl. Med. 284:167, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Foy, H.M., G.E. Kenny and E.M. Levinsohn, Acquisition of mycoplasmata and T strains during infancy. J. Infect. Dis. 121:579, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Taylor-Robinson, D. Ureaplasmas as a cause of disease in man and animals: Fact or fancy? Isr. J. Med. Sci. 20: 843, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Taylor-Robinson, D, G.W. Csonka and M.J. Prentice, Human intraurethral inoculation of Ureaplasmas. Quart. J. Med. 46:309, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Brunner, H., W. Weidner and H-GI Schiefer, Quantitative studies on the role of Ureaplasma urealyticum in non-gonococcal urethritis and chronic prostatitis. Yale J. Biol. Med. 56:545, 1983.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Brunner, H., W. Weidner and H-G Schiefer, Studies on the role of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in prostatitis. J. Infect. Dis. 147:807, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stamm, W.E., K.F. Wagner, R. Amsel, et al.. Causes of the acute urethral syndrome in women. N. Engl. J. Med. 303;409, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Stamm, W.E., K. Running, J. Hale, et al., Etiologic role of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in women with the acute urethral syndrome. Sex. Trans. Dis. 10 (suppl);319, 1983.Google Scholar
  21. Brown, M.B., K.B. Waites, S. Stagno, et al.. Association of Ureaplasma urealyticum with the Urethral Syndrome of Females: Demonstration by quantitative cutlure of urine collected by catheterization (submitted for publication).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Thomsen, A.C. Occurrence and pathogenicity of Mycoplasma hominis in the upper urinary tract: A review. Sex. Trans. Dis. 4(suppl):323, 1983.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Savige, J.A., G.L. Gilbert, K.F. Fairley, et al., Bacteriuria due to Ureaplasma urealyticum and Gardnerella vaginalis in women with preeclmapsia. J. Infect. Dis. 148:605, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Birch, D.F., A.J.F. D’Apice and K.F. Fairley, Ureaplasma urealyticum in the upper urinary tracts of renal allograft recipients. J. Infect. Dis. 144:123, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    McDowall, D.R., J.D. Buchanan, K.F. Fairley, et al.. Anaerobic and other fastidious microorganisms in asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women. 144:114, 1981.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mardh, P.A., L. Westrom and S. Colen, Infections of the genital and urinary tracts with mycoplasmas and Ureaplasma. In genital infections and their complications. D. Danielsson, L. Juhlin and P.A. Mardh, eds. Almquist and Viskell, Stockholm, pp. 53, 1975.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Petterson, S., J.E. Broson, L. Grenabo, et al., Ureaplasma urealyticum in infectious urinary stones. Lancet 1:526, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Clerc, M., J. Texier and C. Babear, Experimental production of bladder calculi in rats by Ureaplasma injection. Ann. Microbiol. (Inst. Pasteur) 135A;135, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Friedlander, A.M. and A.I. Braude, Production of bladder stones by human T mycoplasmas. Nature (Lond.) 247:67, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Grenabo, L., J-E Broson, H. Hedelin, et al., Ureaplasma urealyticum-induced crystallization of magnesium ammonium phosphate and calcium phosphates in synthetic urine. J. Urol. 132:795.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mardh, P.-A. and L. Westrom, Tubal and cervical cultures in acute salpingitis with special reference to Mycoplasma hominis and T-strain mycoplasmas. Br. J. Vener. Dis. 46:179, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mardh, P.-A. Mycoplasmal PID: A review of natural and experimental infections. Yale J. Biol. Med. 56:529, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Miettinen, A., J. Paavonen, E. Janssen, et al.. Enzyme immunoassay for serum antibody to Mycoplasma hominis in women with acute pelvic inflammatory disease. Sex. Trans. Dis. 10(suppl):289, 1983.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Henry-Suchet, J., F. Catalan, V. Loffredo, et al.. Microbiology of specimens obtained by laparoscopy from controls and from patients with pelvic inflammatory disease or infertility with tuboal obstruction. Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 138:1022, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cassell, G.H., B.J. Younger, M.B. Brown, et al.. Microbiologic study of Infertile women at the time of diagnostic laparascopy: Association of Ureaplasma urealyticum with a defined subpopulation. N. Engl. J. Med. 308:502, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Capsi, E., E. Herczeg, F. Solomon, et al., Amnioitis and T strain mycoplasmemia. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 111:1102, 1971.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cassell, G.H., R.O. Davis, K.B. Waites, et al.. Isolation of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum from amniotic fluid at 16–20 weeks of gestation: Potential effect on outcome of pregnancy. Sex. Trans. Dis. 10(suppl):294, 1983.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Embree, J.E., V.W. Kraus, J.A. Embil, et al.. Placental infection with Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum: Clinical correlation. Obstet. Gynecol. 56:475, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kundsin, R.B., S.G. Driscoll and R.H. Monson, Association of Ureaplasma urealyticum in the placenta with perinatal morbidity and mortality. N. Engl. J. Med. 310:941, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Quinn, P.A., J. Butany, M. Chipman, et al., A prospective study of microbial infection in stillbirths and early neonatal death. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 151:238, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Dische, R.M., P.A. Quinn, E. Czegledy-Nagy, et al.. Genital mycoplasma infection. Intrauterine infection: Pathologic study of the fetus and placenta. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 72:167, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kundsin, R.B. and S.G. Driscoll, The role of mycoplasmas in human reproductive failure. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 174:794, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Harrison, R.H., E.R. Alexander, L. Weinstein, et al.. Cervical Chlamydia trachomatis and mycoplasmal infections in pregnancy. J.A.M.A. 250:1721, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kass, E.H., W.M. McCormack, J-S Lin, et al.. Genital mycoplasmas as a cause of excess premature delivery. Trans. Assoc. Am. Physicians. 94:261, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Harrison, R.F., R. Hurley and J. de Louvois, Genital mycoplasmas and birth weight in offspring of primigravid women. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 133:201, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ross, J.M., P.M. Purr, D. Tay lor-Robin son, et al.. The effect of genital mycoplasmas on human fetal growth. Br. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 88:749, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Foy, H.M., G.E. Kenny, W.L. Wentworth, et al., Isolation of Mycoplasma hominis T-strains and cytomegalovirus from the cervix of pregnant women. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 106:635, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Naessens, A., W. Foulon, M. Volkckaert, et al.. Cervical and placental colonization by Ureaplasma urealyticum in pregnant women and fetal outcome. J. Infect. Dis. 148:333, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Quinn, P.A., J.E. Gilan, T. Markstad, et al.. Intrauterine infection with Ureaplasma urealyticum as a cause of fatal neonatal pneumonia. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. 4:538, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Tafari, N., S. Ross, R.L. Naeye, et al., Mycoplasma T strains and perinatal death. Lancet 1:108, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Romano, N., F. Romano and F. Carollo, T-strains of mycoplasmas in broncopneumonic lungs of an aborted fetus. N. Engl. J. Med. 285:950, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Brunnell, P.A., M.R. Dische and M. Walker, Mycoplasma amnionitis and respiratory distress syndrome. J.A.M.A. 207:2097, 1969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Pease, P., K.B. Rogers and B.C. Cole, A cytopathogenic strain of Mycoplasma hominis type 1 isolated from the lung of a stillborn infant. J. Pathol. Bacterid. 94:460, 1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Quinn, P.A., S. Rubin, D.M. Nocilla, et al.. Serologic evidence of Ureaplasma urealyticum infection in neonatal respiratory disease. Yale J. Biol. Med. 56:565, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Rudd, P.T. and D. Carrington, A prospective study of chlamydial mycoplasmal and viral infections in a neonatal intensive care unit. Arch. Dis. Child. 59:120, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Taylor-Robinson, D., P.M. Purr and M.M. Liberiaan, The occurrence of genital mycoplasmas in babies with and without respiratory disease. Acta. Pediatr. Scand. 73:383, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Gallo, D., K.W. Dupuis, N.J. Schmidt, et al.. Broadly reactive immunofluorescence test for measurement of immunoglobulin M and G antibodies to Ureaplasma urealyticum in infant and adult sera. J. Clin. Microbiol. 17:614.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Mardh, P.A. Mycoplasma hominis infection of the central nervous system in newborn infants. Sex. Trans. Dis. 10(suppl):331, 1983.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Powell, D.A., K. Miller and W.A. Clyde, Submandibular adenitis in a newborn infant caused by Mycoplasma hominis. Pediatrics. 63:798, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Sacker, I., M. Walker and P.A. Brunell, Abscess in newborn infant caused by Mycoplasma. Pediatrics 46:303, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Gewitz, M., R. Dinwiddie, L. Rees, et al.. Mycoplasma hominis. A cause of neonatal meningitis. Arch. Dis. Child. 54:231, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Verninder, D.G.R. Septic arthritis due to Mycoplasma hominis. J. Bone Joint Surg. 60:224, 1978.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Anonymous, Mycoplasma hominis infection. Br. Med. J. 2:766, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Anonymous, Mycoplasma hominis infection. Br. Med. J. 3:816, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Solomon, F., E. Caspi, I. Bukovsky and D. Sompolinsky. Infections associated with genital mycoplasmas. Am. J. Obstet Gynecol. 116:785, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Simberkoff, M.S. and B. Toharsky, Mycoplasmemia in adult male patients. J.A.M.A. 236:2522, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ti, Ty, M. Dan, G.W. Stemke, J. A. Robertson and G. Goldsand, Isolation of Mycoplasma hominis from the blood of men with multiple trauma and fever. J.A.M.A. 247:60, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lee, Y., R.R. Nersasian, N.K. Lan, A. McDonald and W.M. McCormack, Wound infections with Mycoplasma hominis. J.A.M.A. 218:252, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    McDonald, M.K., J.O. Moore, J.M. Harrelson, C.P. Browning and H.A. Gallis, Septic arthritis due to Mycoplasma hominis, Arth. Rheum. 26:1044, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    DeGirolami, P.C. and S. Madoff, Mycoplasma hominis septicemia. J. Clin. Micro. 16:566, 1982.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Friis, H, A. Plesner, J. Scheibel, T. Justesen and K. Lind, Mycoplasma hominis septicemia. Br. Med. J. 286:2103, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Mokhbat, J.E., P.K. Peterson and L.D. Sabath; Peritonitis due to Mycoplasma hominis in a renal transplant patient. J. Infect. Dis. 146:713, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Payan, D.G., N. Scigal and S. Madoff, Infection of a brain abscess by Mycoplasma hominis. 14:571, 1981.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Boe, O., O.E. Iversen, A. Mehl, Septicemia due to Mycoplasma hominis. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 15:87, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Spencer, R.C. and C.B. Brown, Septicaemia in a renal transplant patient due to Mycoplasma hominis. 6:267, 1983.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Taylor-Robinson, D., B.J. Thomas, P.M. Furr, et al.. The association of Mycoplasma hominis with arthritis. Sex. Trans. Dis. 10(suppl):341, 1983.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Stuckey, M., P.A. Quinn and E.W. Gelfand, Identification of Ureaplasma urealyticum (T-strain mycoplasma) in a patient with polyarthritis. Lancet 2:917, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Webster, A.D.B., D. Taylor-Robinson, P.M. Furr, et al.. Mycoplasmal (ureaplasmal) septic arthritis in hypogammaglobulinaemia. Br. Med. J. 1:478, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Vogler, L.B., K.B. Waites, P.F. Wright, et al., Ureaplasma urealyticum polyarthritis in agammaglobulinemia. Pedistr. Infect. Dis. 4:687, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Doig, P.A., H.L. Ruhnke and N.C. Palmer, Experimental bovine genital ureaplasmosis. II. Granular vulvitis, endometritis, and salpingitis following uterine inoculation. Can. J. Comp. Med. 44:259, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Howard, R.N. Gourlay and J. Brownlie, Immunity in experimental T-mycoplasmal mastitis. Infect. Immun. 9:400, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Ruhnke, H.L., N.C. Palmer, P.A. Doig, et al.. Bovine abortion and neonatal death associated with Ureaplasma diversum. Theriogenology 21:295.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Miller, R.B., H.L. Ruhnke, P.A. Doig, et al.. The effects of Ureaplasma diversum inoculated into the amniotic cavity in cows. Theriogenology 20:367, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Howard, C.J., R.N. Gourlay, L.H. Thomas, et al.. Induction of pneumonia in gnotobiotic calves following inocualtion of Mycoplasma dispar and Ureaplasmas (T-mycoplasmas). Res. Vet. Sci. 21:227, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Moller, B.R., E.A. Freundt, F.T. Black, et al.. Experimental infection of the genital tract of female grivet monkeys by Mycoplasma hominis. Infect. Immun. 20:248, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Mardh, P.A., L. Westrom and C. Mecklenburg, Studies on ciliated epithelia of the human genital tract. I. Swelling of the cilia of fallopian tube epithelium in organ cultures infected with Mycoplasma hominis. Brit. J. Vener. Dis. 52:52, 1976.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Moller, B.R., F.T. Black and E.A. Freundt, Attempts to produce gynaecological disease in grivet monkeys with Ureaplasma urealyticum. J. Med. Microbiol. 14:475 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Taylor-Robinson, D., and F.E. Carney, Growth and effect of mycoplasmas in fallopian tube organ cultures. Br. J. Vener. Dis. 50:212, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Taylor-Robinson, D. Pathogenicity of Ureaplasmas for animals and man. Zentralbl. Bakterie. Orig. A. 245:150, 1979.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Taylor-Robinson, D., P.M. Furr and A.D.B. Webster, Ureaplasma urealyticum causing persistent urethritis in a patient with hypogammaglobulinaemia. Genitourin. Med. 61:243, 1985.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Webster, A.D.B., D. Taylor-Robinson, P.M. Furr, et al.. Chronic cystitis and urethritis associated with ureaplasmal and mycoplasmal infection in primary hypogammaglobulinaemia. Br. J. Urol. 54:287, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Bowie, W.R., R.F. Digiacomok, K.K. Holmes, et al., Genital inoculation of male Macaca fascicularis with Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Ureaplasma urealyticum. Br. J. Vener. Dis. 54:235, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Prentice, M.J., D. Taylor-Robinson and G.W. Csonka, Br. J. Vener. Dis. 52:269, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Bowie, W.R., E.R. Alexander, J.F. Floyd, et al.. Lancet 2:1276, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Coufalik, E.D.K., D. Taylor-Robinson and C.W. Csonka, Br. J. Vener. Dis. 55:36, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Brown, M.B., G.H. Cassell, D. Taylor-Robinson, et al., J, Clin. Microbiol. 17:288, 1983.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Prien, E.L. and C. Frondel, Studies in urolithiasis 1. The composition of urinary calculi. J. Urol. 57:949, 1947.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Griffith, D.P. Struvite stones. Kidney Int. 13:372, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Thomsen, A.C. The occurrence of mycoplasmas in the urinary tract of patients with chronic pyelonephritis. Acta. Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. B 83:10, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Thomsen, A.C. Occurrence of mycoplasmas in urinary tract of patients with acute pyelonephritis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 8:84, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Thomsen, A.C. and H.O. Lindskow, Diagnosis of Mycoplasma hominis pyelonephritis by demonstration of urine antibodies. J. Clin. Microbiol. 9:681, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Mardh, P.A. An overview of infectious agents of PID, their biology, and recent advances in methods of detection. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 138:9331, 1980.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Wahbeh, C.J., G.B. Hill, R.D. Eden, et al., Intra-amniotic bacterial colonization in premature labor. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 1984.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Bobbity J.R., C.C. Hayslip and J.D. Damato, Amniotic fluid infection as determined by transabdominal amniocentesis in patients with intact membranes in premature labor. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 140:947, 1981.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Cooperman, N.R., M. Kasim and K.R. Rajashekaraiah, Clinical significance of amniotic fluid, amniotic membranes, and endometrial biopsy cultures at the time of cesarean section. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 137:536, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Miller, J.M., M.J. Pupkin and G.B. Hill, Bacterial colonization of amniotic fluid from intact fetal membranes. Am. J. Obstet Gynecol. 136:796, 1980.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Bobbitt, J.R. and W.J. Ledger, Amniotic fluid analysis. J. Reprod. Med. 19:8, 1978.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Stroup, P.E., Amniotic fluid infection and the intact fetal membrane. Obstet. Gynecol. 19:736, 1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Caspi, E., F. Solomon, R. Langer, et al.. Isolation of mycoplasma from the placenta after cesarean section. Obstet. Gynecol. 48:682, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Gravett, M.G., Causes of preterm delivery. Sem. Perinatol. 8:246, 1984.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Goldbus, M.S., W.D. Louhman and C.J. Epstein, Prenatal diagnosis in 3000 amniocenteses. N. Eng. J. Med. 300:157, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    The NICHD National Registry for Amniocentesis Study Group: Midtrimester amniocentesis for prenatal diagnosis. Safety and accuracy. J.A.M.A. 236:1471.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Milunsky, A. Amniocentesis, genetic disorders and the fetus: Diagnosis, prevention and treatment. A. Milunsky, ed. Plenum, New York, pp. 19–46, 1971.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Hanson, F.W., F.R. Tennant, M.Z. Elinor, et al.. Analysis of 2136 gentic amniocenteses: Experience of a single physician. Am. J. Obstet. Gyneco. 152:436, 1985.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Bartsch, F.K., J. Lundberg and J. Wahlstrom, One thousand consecutive midtrimester amniocenteses. Obstet. Gynecol. 55:305, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Thomsen, A.C., D. Taylor-Robinson, K.B. Hansen, et al.. The infrequent occurrence of mycoplasmas in amniotic fluid from women with intact fetal membranes. 63:425, 1984.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Schneider, E.L., E.J. Stanbridge and C.J. Epstein, Mycoplasma contamination of cultured amniotic fluid cells: Potential hazard to prenatal chromosomal diagnosis. Science, 184:477, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Weissenbacher, E.R., W. Bredt, W. Jonatha, et al., Utersuchngen Zum Mycoplasmanbefall des Fruchtwasers. Geburtsh ü Frauenheilk 36:778, 1976.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Piatt, R., J.W. Warren and K.C. Edelin. Infection with Mycoplasma hominis in postpartum fever. Lancet 2:1217, 1980.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Lamey, J.R., D.A. Eschenbach, L. Tompkins, et al.. Isolation of mycoplasmas and bacteria from the blood of postpartum women. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 143:104, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Miller, T.C., S.I. Baman and W.H. Albers, Massive pericardial effusion due to Mycoplasma hominis in a newborn. Am. J. Dis. Child. 136:271, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Dan, M., D.L.J. Tyrrell, G.W. Stemke, et al.. Mycoplasma hominis septicemia in a burned infant. J. Pediatr. 99:743, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Baumann, von L. Nachweis von genitalen Mykoplasmen bei kopfSchwarteninfektionen von neugeborenen nach interner kardiotokographie. Dt. Gesundh.-Wesen 38:779, 1983.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Wallace, R.J., S. Alpert, K. Brown, et al., Isolation of Mycoplasma hominis from blood cultures in patients with postpartum fever. Obstet. Gynecol. 51:181, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Smaron, M.P., S. Boonlayangoor and C.H. Zierdt, Detection of Mycoplasma hominis septicemia by radiometric blood culture, J, Clin. Microbiol. 21: 2981985.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Birch, D.F., K.P. Fairley and R.E. Pavillard, Unconventional bacteria in urinary tract disease: Ureaplasma urealyticum. Kid. Int. 19:58, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Brunner, H., W. Weidner and H.-G. Schiefer, Quantitative studies on the role of Ureaplasma urealyticum in non-gonococcal urethritis and chronic prostatitis. Yale J. Biol. Med. 56:545, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Hofstetter, A. Hautartzt, 28:295, 1977.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Gump, D.W., M. Gibson and T. Ashikaga, N. Engl. J. Med. 310:937, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Busolo, P. and R. Zanchetta, The effect of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum on hamster egg in vitro penetration by human spermatozoa. Pertil. Steril. 43:110, 1985.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Taylor-Robinson, D. and W.M. McCormack. Mycoplasmas in human genitourinary infections. In the Mycoplasmas. Vol. II. Human and Animal Mycoplasmas. J.G. Tully, R.P. Whitcomb, eds.. Academic Press, New York, pp 307–366, 1979.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Fodor, M., Differences in the virulence of Ureaplasma urealyticum isolates. Acta. Microbiologica. Sci. Hung. 27:161, 1980.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Lamey, J.R., H.M. Foy and G.E. Kenny, Infection with Mycoplasma hominis and T-strains in the female genital tract. Obstet. Gynecol. 44:703, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Sompolinsky, D., P. Solomon, L. Elkina, et al. Infections with mycoplasma and bacteria in induced midtrimester abortion and fetal loss. Am. J. Obstet. Gyneco. 121:610, 1975.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Caspi, E., F. Solomon and D. Sompolinsky, Early abortion and Mycoplasma infection. Isr. J. Med. Sci. 8:122, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Stray-Pedersen, B., J. Eng and T.M. Reikvam, Uterine T-mycoplasma colonization in reproductive failure. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 130:307, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Quinn, P.A., A.B. Shewchuk and J. Shuber, et al.. Serologic evidence of Ureaplasma urealyticum infection in women with spontaneous pregnancy loss. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 145:245, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Jones, D.M., Br. Med. J. i:338, 1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Lin, J.-S., K. Radnay, M.I. Kendrick, et al., J. Infect. Dis. 137:266, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Quinn, P.A., A.B. Shewchuck, J. Shuber, et al.. Efficacy of antibiotic therapy preventing spontaneous pregnancy loss. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 145:239, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Kundsin, R.B., Mycoplasmas in genitourinary infection and reproductive failure. Prog. Gynecol. 5:275, 1970.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Elder, H.A., B.A.G. Santamarina and S. Smith, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 111:441, 1968.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Minkoff, H., A.N. Grunebaum, R.H. Schwarz, et al.. Risk factors for prematurity and premature rupture of membranes: A prospective study of the vaginal flora in pregnancy. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 150:965, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Lubchenco, L.O., C. Hansman, M. Dressier, et al.. Pediatrics 32:793, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Rush, R.W., M.J. Keirse, P. Howat, et al., Contribution of preterm delivery to peinatal mortality. Br. Med. J. 2:965, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    O’Brodovich, H.M. and B. Mellins, Bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Am. Rev. Resp. Dis. 132:694, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Maeye, R.L., W.S. Dellinger and W.A. Blanc, J. Pediatr. 79:733, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Tafari, N., S. Ross, R.L. Naeye, et al. Lancet 1:108, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Widmann, F.K., Technical Manual of the American Association of Blood Banks. American Association of Blood Banks, Arlington, V.A. p. 380, 1985.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Rudd, P.T, M.B. Brown and G.H. Cassell, A prospective study of Mycoplasma infection in the preterm infant. Isr. J. Med. Sci. 20:899, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Stagno, S.D. Brasfield M.B. Brown et al. Infant pneumonitis associated with cytomegalovirus. Chlamydia, Pneumocystis and Ureaplasma; a prospective study. Pediatrics 68:322, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Sherman, M.P., B.W. Goetzman, C.E. Ahlfor, et al.. Year Tracheal aspiration and its clinical correlate in the diagnosis of congenital pneumonia. Pediatrics 65:258, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Evans, R.T. and D. Taylor-Robinson, The incidence of tetracycline- resistant sstrains of Ureaplasma urealyticum. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 9:1012, 1978.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Koutsky, L.A., W.E. Stamm, R.C. Brunham, et al.. Persistence of Mycoplasma hominis after therapy: Importance of tetracycline resistance and of coexisting vaginal flora. Sex. Trans. Dis. 10:374, 1983.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. H. Cassell
    • 1
  • J. K. Davis
    • 2
  • K. B. Waites
    • 1
    • 3
  • P. T. Rudd
    • 1
  • D. Talkington
    • 1
  • D. Crouse
    • 4
  • S. A. Horowitz
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MicrobiologyUniversity of Alabama Schools of Medicine and Dentistry University of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA
  2. 2.Department of Comparative MedicineUniversity of Alabama Schools of Medicine and Dentistry University of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA
  3. 3.Department of Pathology and Spain Rehabilitation CenterUniversity of Alabama Schools of Medicine and Dentistry University of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA
  4. 4.Department of PediatricsUniversity of Alabama Schools of Medicine and Dentistry University of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA

Personalised recommendations