Types of Accumulations of Organic Material and their Distribution in Humid Zones
The extensive development of ‘living matter’ on the surface of the continent and in water is one of the characteristic peculiarities of humid zones. As early as the Devonian there appeared thickets of amphibious psilophytes and primitive lepidophytes. From the Carboniferous on, humid belts became typical forest zones, which in the temperate regions have the character of taigas, and in the tropical moist zones have the character of modern tropical forests. All lakes of the humid zones support abundant life, and many intra- continental seas and gulfs also teem with life. Organic material has had a tremendous effect both on the processes of sedimentation in humid belts and, especially, on diagenetic processes in sedimentation and lithification. Consequently, an analysis of the patterns of distribution and accumulation of organic material in sediments is an essential step in developing a theory of humid lithogenesis. The numerous works devoted to coal, oil-shales, and organic substances disseminated in rocks, and, more recently, the work of V. A. Uspenskii (1956) on the carbon content of the biosphere permit us now to draw a clear picture of the distribution and accumulation of organic matter in humid deposits.
KeywordsSiberian Platform Russian Platform Humid Zone Coal Formation Intermontane Basin
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