Introduction to the Reactions Between Oxidizing Gases and Metals and Alloys

  • Karl Hauffe


The tremendous chemical and technological progress made by industry in the past few years has imposed increasingly greater demands on the mechanical and chemical properties of metallic materials. In what follows, we will be concerned with chemical aspects of the problem, and primarily with only one—of course very important—part of this field: the oxidation and scaling resistance of the metallic materials. The terms metal oxidation, tarnishing, andscaling will be used whenever oxidizing gases such as oxygen, sulfur, the halogens, or water vapor attack a metal or an alloy—either at low or high temperatures—i.e., when a chemical reaction takes place. Oxidative attack upon metals can take place under the most varied conditions—from the “mild” oxidizing conditions which exist in air at room temperature to the “severe” conditions present during reactions of hot furnace gases on metallic structural elements. Especially stringent requirements are placed upon the scaling resistance of metallic materials used for chemical apparatus in high-temperature reactions, which frequently proceed under high pressures, as well as on the materials used for the construction of gas turbines (turbine blades), hot air motors, and flaming-gas jet-propulsion systems, and those employed in the construction of high-pressure steam boilers, where, for reasons of economy, low-alloy ferritic steels are used. It is the last example which poses the greatest demands on the scaling resistance.


Lattice Defect Chemical Potential Gradient Thick Oxide Layer Metal Diffusion Covalent Crystal 
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© Plenum Press 1965

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  • Karl Hauffe

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