“There is no scientific basis for manipulative therapy,” has been the most commonly stated and the most damaging criticism levied against practitioners of manipulation (Crelin, 1973; Farfan, 1973). Many noted physicians and scientists, after reviewing the available literature and research, have come to the conclusion that “there is no justification for the use of manipulative therapy” (Nachemson, 1975; Pearce & Moll, 1967; Sham, 1974). On the other hand, practitioners of manipulation feel that their clinical results are indisputable (Gitelman, 1975; Maitland, 1973; Mennell, 1960), and that there is ample experimental evidence to support their theories on how manipulation works (Cyriax, 1975; Homewood, 1963; Janse, Houser & Wells, 1947; Maigne, 1972). One reason for this dichotomy of opinion is the fact that certain basic criteria requisite for the evaluation of the rationale for any treatment have been frequently neglected.
- Back Pain
- Cervical Spine
- Nerve Compression
- Spinal Manipulation
- Spinal Manipulative Therapy
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
ADRIAN, E. D., and Y. ZOTTERMAN. The impulses produced by sensory nerve endings. J. Physiol. 61:151–171, 1926.
BARRé, M. Sur un syndrome sympathique cervical posterieur et sa cause fréquente l’arthrite cervicale. Rev. Neurol. 33:1246–1248, 1926.
BECHGAARD, P. Late post-traumatic headache and manipulation. Corres. Brit. Med. J., June 4:1419, 1966.
BLOOD, H. A. Manipulative management of hypertension. Acad. Appl. Osteopath. Yearbook, pp. 189–195, 1964.
BOAKE, H. K. Cervical headache. Canadian Family Physician May: 75–78, 1972.
BOLANDE, R. P., and W. F. TOWLER. Terminal autonomic nervous system in cystic fibrosis. Arch. Pathol. 95:172–181, 1973.
BOSSHARD, R. The treatment of acute lumbago and sciatica. Ann. Swiss Chirop. Assoc., pp. 50–61, 1961.
BRADFORD, S. G. Role of osteopathic manipulative therapy in emotional disorders: A physiologic hypothesis. J. Am. Osteop. Assoc. 64:484–493, 1965.
BREEN, A. C. Chiropractors and the treatment of back pain. Rheumatol. Rehabil. 16:46–53, 1977.
BUERGER, A. A. Clinical trials of manipulation therapy. In: Approaches to the Validation of Manipulation Therapy, edited by A. A. Buerger and J. S. Tobis. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas, 1976, pp. 315–321.
BUSCH, B. W., B. D. DANELIUS, and S. F. DROST. Cardiovascular changes after chiropractic. Am. Chiropractic Assoc. J. 8: s-33–38, 1974.
CELANDER, E., A. J. KOENIG, and D. R. CELANDER. Effect of osteopathic manipulative therapy on autonomic tone as evidenced by blood pressure changes and activity of the fibrinolytic system. J. Am. Osteop. Assoc. 67:1037–1038, 1968.
CHRISMAN, O. D., and R. F. GERVAIS. Otologic manifestations of the cervical syndrome. Clin. Orthop. 24:34–39, 1962.
CHRISMAN, O. D., A. MITTNACHT, and G. A. SNOOK. A study of the results following rotatory manipulation in the lumbar intervertebral disc syndrome. J. Bone Joint Surg. 46A:517–524, 1964.
CLYMER, D., F. L. LEVIN, and R. H. SCULTHORPE. Effects of osteopathic manipulations on several different physiologic functions. J. Am. Osteop. Assoc. 72:204–207, 1972.
COOTE, J. H., C.B.B. DOWNMAN, and W. V. WEBER. Reflex discharges into thoracic white rami elicited by somatic and visceral afferent excitation. J. Physiol. 202:147–159, 1969.
COYER, A. B., and I.H.M. CURWEN. Low back pain treated by manipulation: A controlled series. Brit. Med. J. 1:705–707, 1955.
CRELIN, E. S. A scientific test of chiropractic theory. Am. Scientist 61:574–580, 1973.
CYRIAX, R. Textbook of Orthopedic Medicine. Vol. 1, Diagnosis of Soft Tissue Lesions. 6th ed. London: Bailliere Tindall, 1975.
DEJARNETTE, B. The Philosophy, Art and Science of Sacro-Occipital Technique. Nebraska City: B. DeJarnette, 1967.
DORAN, D.M.L., and D. J. NEWELL. Manipulation in treatment of low back pain: A multicenter study. Brit. Med. J. 2:161–164, 1975.
DROZ, B., and C. P. LEBLOND. Migration of proteins along the axon of the sciatic nerve. Science 137:1047–1048, 1962.
DRUM, D. C., and C. M. GODFREY. Personal communication and presentation to the North American Academy of Manipulative Medicine annual meeting, October 1976.
DUNN, F. E. Osteopathic concepts in psychiatry. J. Am. Osteop. Assoc. 49:354–357, 1950.
ENGLAND, R., and P. DEIBERT. Electromyographic studies. Part I: Consideration in the evaluation of osteopathic therapy. J. Am. Osteop. Assoc. 72:162–169, 1972.
FARFAN, H. F. Mechanical Disorders of the Low Back. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1973.
FEINSTEIN, B., J.N.K. LANGTON, R. M. JAMESON, and F. SCHILLER. Experiments on pain referred from deep somatic tissues. J. Bone Joint Surg. 36A:981–997, 1954.
FICHERA, A. P., and D. R. CELANDER. Effect of osteopathic manipulative therapy on autonomic tone as evidenced by blood pressure change and activity of the fibrinolytic system. J. Am. Osteop. Assoc. 68:1036–1038, 1969.
FIGAR, Š., L. KRAUSOVá, and K. LEWIT. Plethysmographische Untersuchungen bei manuelle behandlung vertebragener Störungen. Acta Neuroveg. 29:618–623, 1967.
FISK, J. W. Manipulation in general practice. New Zealand Med. J. 74:172–175, 1971.
FISK, J. W. The straight leg raising test: Its relevance to possible disc pathology. New Zealand Med. J. 81:557–560, 1975.
FORUM. Diagnosis and treatment of uncomplicated hayfever. J. Am. Osteop. Assoc. 74:588–595, 1975.
GALENUS. Opera Bd. IV Venetia 1625, quoted by E. H. Schiotz. Manipulation treatment of the spinal column from the medical-historical viewpoint (NIH Library Trans.). Tidsskr. Nor. Laegeforn 78:359–372, 1968.
GARDNER, E. Physiology of movable joints. Physiol. Rev. 30:127–176, 1950.
GAYRAL, L., and E. NEUWIRTH. Oto-neuro-ophthalmologic manifestations of cervical origin. New York J. Med. 54:1920–1926, 1954.
GILLET, H., and M. LIEKENS. Belgian Chiropractic Research Notes. 7th ed. Brussels: Gillet and Liekens, 1968.
GITELMAN, R. The treatment of pain by spinal manipulation. In: The Research Status of Spinal Manipulative Therapy, edited by M. Goldstein. NINCDS Monograph #15, DHEW Publ. No. NIH 76–998, 1975, pp. 277–285.
GLOVER, J. R., J. G. MORRIS, and T. KHOSLA. Back pain: A randomized clinical trial of rotational manipulation of the trunk. Brit. J. Ind. Med. 31:59–64, 1974.
GLOVER, J. R., J. G. MORRIS, and T. KHOSLA. A randomized clinical trial of rotational manipulation of the trunk. In: Approaches to the Validation of Manipulation Therapy, edited by A. A. Buerger and J. S. Tobis. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas, 1977, pp. 271–283.
GORDIENKO, A. N. Changes in bioelectric potentials of afferent nerves in immunized animal as antigen action skin receptors. Control of Immunogenesis by the Nervous System. Publication U.S. Dept. of Commerce, TT 60–51069:53–57, 1958.
GRICE, A. A. Muscle tonus changes following manipulation. J. Can. Chiropractic Assoc. 19:29–31, 1974.
HALDEMAN, S. What is meant by manipulation? In: Approaches to the Validation of Manipulative Therapy, edited by A. A. Buerger and J. S. Tobis. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas, 1977, pp. 299–302.
HALDEMAN, S. Why one cause of back pain? In: Approaches to the Validation of Manipulative Therapy, edited by A. A. Buerger and J. S. Tobis. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas, 1975, pp. 187–197.
HALDEMAN, S., and B. S. MEYER. The effect of experimental constriction on the structure of the sciatic nerve. South African Med. J. 44:888–892, 1970.
HARTZMAN, G. W., and H. S. SCHWARTZ. An analysis of 350 emotionally maladjusted individuals under chiropractic care. Chapter 16 in: Mental Health and Chiropractic, edited by H. S. Swartz. New York: Sessions Publisher, 1973.
HENDERSON, R. S. The treatment of lumbar intervertebral disc protrusion. Brit. Med. J. 2:597–598, 1952.
HOMEWOOD, A. E. The neurodynamics of the vertebral subluxation. Willowdale, Ont.: Chiropractic Publishers, 1963.
HOOD, R. P. Blood pressure. Digest Chiropractic Econ. 16:36–38, 1974.
HOWELL, R. K., and R. E. KAPPLER. The influence of osteopathic manipulative therapy on a patient with advanced cardiopulmonary disease. J. Am. Osteopath. Assoc. 73:322–327, 1973.
HOWELL, R. K., T. W. ALLEN, and R. E. KAPPLER. The influence of osteopathic manipulative therapy in the management of patients with chronic obstructive lung disease. J. Am. Osteop. Assoc. 74:757–760, 1975.
HUTTON, S. R. Combination of traction and manipulation for the lumbar disc syndrome. Med. J. Australia 54–1:1196, 1967.
HVIID, H. The influence of chiropractic treatment on the rotary mobility of the cervical spine — a kinesiometric and statistical study. Ann. Swiss Chiropractic Assoc. 5:31–44, 1971.
JANSE, J., R. H. HOUSER, and B. F. WELLS. Chiropractic Principles and Technique. Lombard, Ill.: National College of Chiropractic, 1947.
KING, J. S. Randomized trial of the Rees and Shealy methods for the treatment of low back pain. Chapter 4 in: Approaches to the Validation of Manipulative Therapy, edited by A. A. Buerger and J. S. Tobis. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas, 1977.
KORR, I. M. The spinal cord as organizer of disease processes: Some preliminary perspectives. J. Am. Osteop. Assoc. 76: 89–99, 1976.
KUNERT, W. Functional disorders of internal organs due to vertebral lesions. Ciba Symposium 13–3, 1965.
LEWIT, K. Meniere’s disease and the cervical spine. Rev. Czechoslovak Med. 2:129–139, 1961.
LINDSAY, J. R., and W. G. HEMENWAY. Postural vertigo due to unlimited sudden partial loss of vestibular function. Ann. Otol. 65:692–706, 1956.
LYNESS, S. S., and A. WAGMAN. Neurological deficit following cervical manipulation. Surg. Neurol. 2:121–124, 1974.
MAIGNE, R. Orthopedic Medicine — A New Approach to Vertebral Manipulations, translated and edited by W. T. Liberson. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas, 1972.
MAITLAND, G. D. Peripheral Manipulation, 3rd ed., 1970. London: Butterworths, 1973.
MATTHEWS, J. A., and D. A. H. YATES. Reduction of lumbar disc prolapse by manipulation. Brit. Med. J. 20:696–699, 1969.
MELTZER, H. Y. Skeletal muscle abnormalities in patients with affective disorders. J. Psychiat. Res. 10:43–57, 1973.
MELZACK, R., and P. D. WALL. Pain mechanisms: A new theory. Science 150:971–979, 1965.
MENNELL, J. McM. Back Pain — Diagnosis and Treatment Using Manipulative Therapy. Boston, Toronto: Little, Brown & Co., 1960.
MENSOR, M. C. Non-operative treatment, including manipulation, for lumbar intervertebral disc syndrome. J. Bone Joint Surg, 37A: 925–936, 1955.
METTIER, S., and C. CAPP. Neurological symptoms and clinical findings in patients with cervical degenerative arthritis. Ann. Int. Med. 14:1315–1322, 1941.
MILLER, W. D. Treatment of visceral disorders by manipulative therapy. In: The Research Status of Spinal Manipulative Therapy, edited by M. Goldstein. NINCDS Monograph No. 15, DHEW Publication No. NIH 76–998, 1975, pp. 295–301.
NACHEMSON, A. Intradiscal measurements of pH in patients with rhizopathies. Acta Orthop. Scand. 40:23–33, 1969.
NACHEMSON, A. A critical look at the treatment for low back pain. In: The Research Status of Spinal Manipulative Therapy, edited by M. Goldstein. NINCDS Monograph No. 15, DHEW Publication No. NIH 76–998, 1975, pp. 287–293.
NIJIMA, A., and A. FUKUDA. Release of glucose from perfused liver preparation in response to stimulation of the splanchnic nerves in the toad. Japan. J. Physiol. 23:497–508, 1973.
NORMAN, J., and J. G. WHITMAN. The vagal contribution to changes in heart rate evoked by stimulation of cutaneous nerves in the dog. J. Physiol., London 234:89P–90P, 1973.
NORRIS, T. A study of the effect of manipulation on blood pressure. Acad. Appl. Osteopath. Yearbook: 184–188, 1964.
PALMER, D. D. The Science, Art and Philosophy of Chiropractic. Portland, Ore.: Portland Printing House Co., 1910.
PARE, A. Opera, Liber XV, S. 440–440, Paris, 1582, quoted by E. H. Schiotz. Manipulation treatment of the spinal column from the medical-historical viewpoint (NIH Library translation). Tidsskr. Nor. Laegeforn 78:359–372, 1958.
PEARCE, J., and J.M.H. MOLL. Conservative treatment and natural history of acute disc lesions. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 30:13–17, 1967.
PERL, E. R. Pain: spinal and peripheral factors. In: The Research Status of Spinal Manipulative Therapy, edited by M. Goldstein. NINCDS Monograph No. 15, DHEW Publication No. NIH 76–998, 1975, pp. 173–182.
PERL, E. R., and D. G. WHITLOCK. Somatic Stimuli exciting spinothalamic projections to thalamic neurons in cat and monkey. Exp. Neurol. 3:356–396, 1961.
PRATT-THOMAS, H. R., and K. E. BERGER. Cerebellar and spinal injuries after chiropractic manipulation. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 133:600–603, 1947.
QUIGLEY, W. H. Physiological psychology of chiropractic in mental disorders. Chapter 10 in: Mental Health and Chiropractic -A Multidisciplinary Approach, edited by H. S. Schwartz. New York: Sessions Publishers, 1973.
RIMON, R., A. STENBACK, and E. HUCKMAN. Electromyographic findings in depression Patients. J. Psychosom. Res. 10:159–170, 1966.
ROBERTSON, A.H.M. Manipulation in cervical syndrome. The Practitioner 200:396–402, 1968.
ROGERS, J. T., and J. C. ROGERS. The role of osteopathic manipulative therapy in the treatment of coronary artery disease. J. Am. Osteop. Assoc. 76:71–81, 1976.
RUXIN, R. L., T. G. BIDDER, and D. P. ANGLE. The influence of autonomic arousal on blood clotting time in patients receiving electroconvulsive treatments. J. Psychosom. Res. 16:185–192, 1972.
SATO, A., and R. F. SCHMIDT. Somatosympathetic reflexes: afferent fibers, central pathways, discharge characteristics. Physiol. Rev. 53:916–947, 1973.
SHAM, S. M. Manipulation of the lumbosacral spine. Clin. Orthop. Related Res. 101:146–150, 1974.
SIEHL, D., D. R. OLSON, H. E. ROSS, and E. E. ROCKWOOD. Manipulation of the lumbar spine with the patient under general anesthesia: Evaluation by electromyograph and clinical-neurologic examination of its use for lumbar root compression syndrome. J. Am. Osteop. Assoc. 70:433–437, 1971.
STERNBACH, R. A., S. R. WOLF, R. W. MURPHY, and W. H. AKESON. Traits of pain patients: the low-back “loser”. Psycho somatics 14:226–229, 1973.
STEIN-WERBLOWSKY, R. The sympathetic nervous system and cancer. Exp. Neurol. 42:97–100, 1974.
STILES, E. G. Osteopathic manipulation in a hospital environment. J. Am. Osteop. Assoc. 76:243–258, 1976.
STILL, A. T. Philosophy of Osteopathy. Kirksville: A. T. Still Publisher, 1899.
SWAN, B. Cervical manipulation. Med. J. Australia 2:811, 1968.
The Manipulation Project. California College of Medicine, University of California, Irvine. Preliminary Report: Effect of rotational manipulation of the pelvis and lumbosacral spine on straight leg raising. Submitted for publication, 1977.
TISSINGTON-TATLOW, W. F., and H. G. HAMMER. Syndrome of vertebral artery compression. Neurology 7:331–340, 1957.
TRAN, T. A., and J. D. KIRBY. The effects of upper cervical adjustment upon the normal physiology of the heart. Am. Chiropractic Assoc. J. 11:S-58–62, 1977.
VEAR, H. J. A study into the complaints of patients seeking chiropractic care. J. Canad. Chiropractic Assoc. Oct.:9–13, 1972.
WARR, A. C., J. A. WILKINSON, J.M.B. BURN, and L. LANGDON. Chronic lumbosciatic syndrome treated by epidural injection and manipulation. The Practitioner 209:53–59, 1972.
WEISS, P. Endoneurial edema in constricted nerve. Anat. Rec. 86:491–522, 1943.
WEISS, P., and H. B. HISCOE. Experiments on the mechanism of nerve growth. J. Exptl. Zool. 107:315–395, 1948.
Editors and Affiliations
Rights and permissions
© 1978 Plenum Press, New York
About this chapter
Cite this chapter
Haldeman, S. (1978). The Clinical Basis for Discussion of Mechanisms of Manipulative Therapy. In: Korr, I.M. (eds) The Neurobiologic Mechanisms in Manipulative Therapy. Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-8902-6_4
Publisher Name: Springer, Boston, MA
Print ISBN: 978-1-4684-8904-0
Online ISBN: 978-1-4684-8902-6
eBook Packages: Springer Book Archive