Manipulative Therapy in Relation to Total Health Care

  • Philip E. Greenman


The history of manipulation is as old as the history of medicine itself (Cyria & Schiotz, 1975). Hippocrates, the acknowledged father of medicine, apparently used manipulative therapy in patient care. His disciples, and subsequent physicians throughout the ages, have applied manual therapy to the human body. A study of the history of manipulative therapy or manual medicine leads one to two basic conclusions. In the first instance, most manipulative therapy was utilized for the treatment of “structural” problems. Treatment was designed to restore altered structure to a more “normal” condition. The treatment of kyphosis, lordosis, and scoliosis, by varying means of traction, compression, and other manual forces, was apparently to restore structural form. In the second instance, much of the therapy was on the basis of empirical result, rather than upon the basis of “scientific” research and study. If the therapy was effective, it was utilized.


Irritable Bowel Syndrome Autonomic Nervous System Musculoskeletal System Gall Bladder Disease Spinal Manipulative Therapy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Philip E. Greenman
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Osteopathic MedicineMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA

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