Advertisement

An Endocrine Hypothesis of Brain Aging and Studies on Brain-Endocrine Correlations and Monosynaptic Neurophysiology during Aging

  • Philip W. Landfield
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 113)

Abstract

As many papers in this symposium indicate, there is rapidly growing evidence that alterations in the neural regulation of endocrine functions may play a major role in mammalian aging. In particular, there seems to be a somewhat selective age-dependent deterioration of dopaminergic transmitter systems in rodents (Finch, 1973; Simpkins, Mueller, Huang and Meites, 1977) and in humans (Carlsson, this volume). Additionally, there is now some evidence that reduced dopaminergic presynaptic function is associated with reduced postsynaptic dopamine receptors in at least some systems (Severinson and Finch, unpublished; Finch, this volume). The major role which dopamine seems to play in certain well-established age-dependent syndromes, such as parkinsonism in humans (Carlsson, this volume; Barbeau, this volume) or cessation of ovarian cycling in rats (Clemens, this volume; Clemens and Bennett, 1977), as well as the apparent significance of hypothalamic dopaminergic mechanisms in endocrine regulation (reviewed in Reichlin, 1974; Schally, Arimura and Kastin, 1973; Blackwell and Guillemin, 1973), lends significant support to the view that neuroendocrine deregulation could be a critical factor in the mammalian aging process.

Keywords

Reactive Astrocyte Aged Animal Stimulation Pulse Schaffer Collateral Adrenal Weight 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adelman, R.C. (1976). Age-dependent hormonal regulation of mammalian gene expression. In: Hypothalamus Pituitary and Aging, pp. 668–675, eds. A.F. Everitt and J.A. Burgess, Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Ill.Google Scholar
  2. Andersen, P. (1975). Organization of hippocampal neurons and their interconnections. In: The Hippocampus, pp. 155–175, eds. R. L. Isaacson and K.H. Pribram, Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Birren, J.E. (1965). Age changes in speed of behavior: Its central nature and physiological correlates. In: Behavior, Aging, and the Nervous System, eds. A.T. Welford and J.E. Birren, Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Ill.Google Scholar
  4. Blackwell, R.E. and Guillemin, R. (1973). Hypothalamic control of adenohypophysial secretions. Ann. Rev. Physiol., 35, 357–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bliss, T.V.P. and Lømo, T. (1973). Long lasting potentiation of synaptic transmission in dentate area of the anesthetized rabbit following stimulation of the perforant path. J. Physiol. 232, 331–356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bohus, B. (1975). The hippocampus and the pituitary-adrenal system hormones. In: The Hippocampus, vol. 1, pp. 323–353, eds. R.L. Isaacson and K.H. Pribram, Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brizzee, K.R., Sherwood, N. and Timiras, P.S. (1968). A comparison of cell populations at various depth levels in cerebral cortex of young adult and aged Long-Evans rats. J. Geront. 23, 289–297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brody, H. (1973). Aging of the vertebrate brain. In: Development and Aging in the Central Nervous System, pp. 121–133, eds. M. Rockstein and M. Sussman, Academic Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brody, H. (1976). An examination of cerebral cortex and brainstem aging. In: Neurobiology of Aging, 3, pp. 171–181, eds. R.D. Terry and S. Gershon, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  10. Clemens, J.A. and Bennett, D.R. (1977). Do aging changes in the preoptic area contribute to loss of cyclic endocrine function? J. Geront. 32, 19–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cook, R.D. and Wisniewski, H.M. (1973). The role of Oligodendroglia and astroglia in Wallerian degeneration of the optic nerve. Brain Res. 61, 191–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Das, L.N. and Magilton, J.H. (1971). Age changes in the relationship among endocrine glands of the beagle. Exp. Geront. 6, 313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Deadwyler, S.A., West, J.R., Cotman, C.W. and Lynch, G.S. (1975). A neurophysiological analysis of the commissural projections to the dentate gyrus of the rat. J. Neurophysiol. 38, 167–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. DeKloet, R. and McEwen, B.S. (1976). Glucocorticoid interactions with brain and pituitary. In: Molecular and Functional Neurobiolgoy, pp. 257–295, ed. W.H. Gispen, Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  15. Douglas, R.M. and Goddard, G.V. (1975). Long-term potentiation of the perforant path-granule cell synapse in the rat hippocampus. Brain Res. 86, 205–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dyball, R.E.J. and Dyer, R.G. (1971). Plasma oxytocin concentration and paraventricular neurone activity in rats with diencephalic islands and intact brains. J. Physiol., Lond. 216, 227–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Eisdorfer, C. (1972). Autonomic changes in aging. In: Aging and the Brain, ed. C.M. Gaitz, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Finch, C.E. (1973). Catecholamine metabolism in the brains of aging male mice. Brain Res. 52, 261–276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Finch, C.E. (1976). The regulation of physiological changes during mammalian aging. Q. Rev. Biol. 51, 49–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fujita, Y. and Sakata, H. (1962). Electrophysiological properties of CA1 and CA2 apical dendrites of rabbit hippocampus. J. Neurophysiol. 25, 209–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Geinisman, Y., Bondareff, W. and Dodge, J. (1977). Partial deaf-ferentation of neurons in the dentate gyrus of the senescent rat. Brain Res. 134, 541–554.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gold, P.E. and McGaugh, J.L. (1975). Changes in learning and memory during aging. In: Neurobiology of Aging, eds. J.M. Ordy and K.R. Brizzee, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  23. Hayward, J.N. and Jennings, D.P. (1973). Activity of magnocellular neuroendocrine cells in the hypothalamus of unanesthetized monkeys. I. Functional cell types and their anatomical distribution in the supraoptic nucleus and the internuclear zone. J. Physiol. Lond. 232, 515–543.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Hess, G.D. and Riegle, G.D. (1970). Adrenocortical responsiveness to stress and ACTH in aging rats. J. Geront. 25, 354–358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kandel, E.R., Spencer, W.A. and Brinley, F.J. (1961). Electrophysiology of hippocampal neurons. I. Sequential invasion and synaptic organization. J. Neurophysiol. 24, 225–242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Korczyn, A.D., Laor, N. and Nemet, P. (1976). Sympathetic pupillary tone in old age. Arch. Ophthal. 94, 1905.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Landfield, P.W. (1976). Synchronous EEG rhythms: Their nature and their possible functions in memory, information transmission and behavior. In: Molecular and Functional Neurobiology, pp. 390–424, ed. W.H. Gispen, Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  28. Landfield, P.W. (1978). Composite memory, the hippocampus and aging. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, in press.Google Scholar
  29. Landfield, P.W. and Lynch, G. (1977a). Impaired monosynaptic potentiation in in vivo hippocampal slices from aged, memory-dedicient rats. J. Geront. 32, 523–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Landfield, P.W. and Lynch, G. (1977b). Brain aging and plasma steroids: Quantitative correlations. Soc. Neurosci. Absts. November, 1977.Google Scholar
  31. Landfield, P.W., Lindsey, J.D., and Lynch, G. (1978). Apparent acceleration of brain aging pathology by prolonged administration of glucocorticoids. Soc. Neurosci. Absts. Vol 4, 350.Google Scholar
  32. Landfield, P.W., McGaugh, J.L. and Lynch, G. (1978). Impaired synaptic potentiation processes in the hippocampus of aged, memory-deficient rats. Brain Res., 150, 85–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Landfield, P.W., Rose, G., Sandles, L., Wohlstadter, T. and Lynch, G. (1977). Patterns of astroglial hypertrophy and neuronal degeneration in the hippocampus of aged, memory-deficient rats. J. Geront. 32, 3–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lewis, B.K. and Wexler, B.C. (1974). Serum insulin changes in male rats associated with age and reproductive activity. J. Geront. 29, 139–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. McGeer, E. and McGeer, P.L. (1976). Neurotransmitter metabolism in the aging brain. In: Neurobiology of Aging, pp. 389–403, eds. R.D. Terry and S. Gershon, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  36. McEwen, B.S., Gerlach, J.L. and Micco, D.J. (1975). Putative glucocorticoid receptors in hippocampus and other regions of the brain. In: The Hippocampus, vol. 1, pp. 285–322, eds. R.L. Isaacson and K.H. Pribran, Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. McIlwain, H. (1972). Electrical stimulation of specified subsystems of the mammalian brain, As isolated tissue preparations. In: Experimental Models of Epilepsy, pp. 269–289, eds. D.P. Purpura and R. Walter, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  38. Milner, B. (1970). Memory and the medial temporal regions of the brain. In: Biology of Memory, eds. K.H. Pribram and D.E. Broadbent, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  39. Mugnaini, E., Walberg, R. and Brodai, A. (1976). A mode of termination of primary vestibular fibres in the lateral vestibular nucleus. An experimental electron microscopical study in the cat. Expl. Brain Res. 4, 187–211.Google Scholar
  40. Reichlin, S. (1974). Neuroendocrinology. In: Textbook of Endocrinolocy, 5th Edition, pp. 774–831, ed. R.H. Williams, Saunders, Philadelphis.Google Scholar
  41. Riegle, G.D. and Hess, G.D. (1972). Chronic and acute dexamethasone suppression of stress activation of the adrenal cortex in young and aged rats. Neuro endocrinology 9, 175–187.Google Scholar
  42. Riegle, G.D. and Meites, J. (1976). Effects of aging on LH and prolactin after LHRH, L-dopa, methyl-dopa, and stress in male rats. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. Med. 151, 507–511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Robinson, D.S. (1975). Changes in monoamine oxidase and monoamines with human development and aging. Fedn. Proc. 34, 103–107.Google Scholar
  44. Schally, A.V., Arimura, A. and Kastin, A.J. (1973). Hypothalamic regulatory hormones. Science 179, 341–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Scheibel, M.E. and Scheibel, A.B. (1975). Structural changes in the aging brain. In: Aging I, pp. 11–37, eds. H. Brody, D. Harmon and J.M. Ordy, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  46. Selye, H. and Tuchweber, B. (1976), Stress in relation to aging and disease. In: Hypothalamus, Pituitary and Aging, pp. 553–569, eds. A.F. Everitt and J.A. Burgess, Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
  47. Shock, N.W. (1974). Physiological aspects of aging in man. Ann. Rev. Physiol. 23, 97–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Shock, N.W. (1974). Physiological theroies of aging, In: Theoretical Aspects of Aging, ed, N. Rockstein, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  49. Simpkins, J.W., Mueller, G.P., Huang, H.H. and Meites, J. (1977). Evidence for depressed catecholamine and enhanced serotonin metabolism in aging male rats: Possible relation to gonadotropin secretion. Endocrinology 100, 1672–1678.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Terry, R.D. and Wisniewski, N.M. (1972). Ultrastructure of senile dementia and of experimental analogs. In: Aging and the Brain, ed. C.M. Gaitz, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  51. Vaughan, D.W.(1977). Age-related deterioration of pyramidal cell basal dendrites in rat auditory cortex. J. Comp. Neurol. 171, 501–515.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Vaughan, D.W. and Peters, A. (1974). Neuroglial cells in the cerebral cortex of rats from young adulthood to old age: An electron microscope study study. J. Neurocytol. 3, 405–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Vyskocil, F. and Gutmann, E. (1972). Spontaneous transmitter release from nerve endings and contractile properties in the soleus and diaphragm muscles of senile rats. Experientia 28, 280–281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wexler, B.C. (1976). Comparative aspects of hyperadrenocorticism and aging. In: Hypothalamus Pituitary and Aging, pp. 333–361, eds. A.F. Everitt and J.A. Burgess, Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
  55. Wisniewski, H.M., Ghetti, B. and Terry, R.D. (1973). Neuritic (senile) plaques and filamentous changes in aged rhesus monkeys. J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol. 32, 566–584.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zs-Nagy, I., Zs-Nagy, V., Pieri, C., Giulli, C. and DelMoro, M. (1978). In vivo stimulation of nerve cells by Phytohemagglutinin. Gerontology 24, 12–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Philip W. Landfield
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physiology and PharmacologyBowman Gray School of MedicineWinston-SalemUSA

Personalised recommendations