Endocrinology of Bone Formation

  • E. Martin Spencer


Bone is a metabolically active, multifunctional tissue. The study of its endo- crine regulation is especially complicated because many calciotropic hormones and growth factors affect bone. These hormones and growth factors may have direct and indirect actions and may also elicit counterregulatory effects. For several, the different modes of action have not been clearly separated.


Bone Formation Bone Resorption Thyroid Hormone Growth Plate Stimulate Bone Resorption 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ameenuddin, S., M. Sunde, H. F. DeLuca, N. Ikekawa and Y. Kobayashi. 1982. 24-Hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3: is it required for embryonic development in chicks? Science 217:451.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Askenasi, R. and N. Demeester-Mirkinen. 1975. Urinary excretion of hydroxylysyl glycosides and thyroid function. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 40:342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Au, W. Y. 1976. Cortisol stimulation of parathyroid hormone secretion by rat parathyroid glands in organ culture. Science 193:1015.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bennett, A., T. L. Chen, D. Feldman, R. L. Hintz and R. G. Rosenfeld. 1982. Characterization of somatomedin C/insulin-like growth factor-I receptors on cultured bone cells: regulation of receptor concentration by glucocorticoids. Calcif. Tissue Int. 34:S2.Google Scholar
  5. Bennett, A. E., H. W. Wahner, B. L. Riggs and R. L. Hintz. 1984. Insulin-like growth factors I and II: aging and bone density. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 59:701.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Blundell, T. L., S. Bedarkar, E. Rinderknecht, and R. E. Humbel. 1978. Insulin-like growth factor: a model for tertiary structure accounting for immunoreactivity and receptor binding. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75:180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bringhurst, R. and J. T. Potts. 1981. Bone collagen synthesis in vitro: structure activity relations among parathyroid hormone fragments and analogs. Endocrinology 108:103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Burch, W. M. and H. E. Lebovitz. 1981. Hormonal activation of ornithine decarboxylase in em- bryonic chick pelvic cartilage. J. Physiol. (London) 241:E454.Google Scholar
  9. Burch, W. M. and H. E. Lebovitz. 1982. Triiodothyronine stimulates maturation of porcine growth- plate cartilage in vitro. J. Clin. Invest. 70:496.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Burger, E. H., J. W. M. Van der Meer, J. S. Van de Gevel, J. C. Gribnau, C. W. Thesingh and R. Van Furth. 1982. In vitro formation of osteoclasts from long-term cultures of bone marrow mononuclear phagocytes. J. Exp. Med. 156:1604.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Canalis, E. 1980. Effect of insulin-like growth factor I on DNA and protein synthesis in cultured rat calvaria. J. Clin. Invest. 66:709.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Canalis, E. 1982. Cortisol effects on calvariai collagen and DNA synthesis depend upon the pres- ence of periosteal tissue. Calcif. Tissue Int. 34:S3.Google Scholar
  13. Canalis, E. 1983. The hormonal and local regulation of bone formation. Endocrine Rev. 4:62.Google Scholar
  14. Canalis, E. M., J. W. Dietrich, D. M. Maina and L. G. Raisz. 1977. Hormonal control of bone collagen synthesis in vitro. Effects of insulin and glucagon. Endocrinology 100:668.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Canalis, E. M., W. A. Peck and L. G. Raisz. 1980. Stimulation of DNA and collagen synthesis by autologous growth factor in cultured fetal rat calvaría. Science 210:1021.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Canalis, E. and L. G. Raisz. 1978. Effect of sex steroids on bone collagen synthesis in vitro. Calcif. Tissue Res. 25:105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Canalis, E. and L. G. Raisz. 1979. Effect of epidermal growth factor on bone formation in vitro. Endocrinology 104:862.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Canalis, E. and L. G. Raisz. 1980. Effect of fibroblast growth factor on cultured fetal rat calvaria. Metabolism 29:108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Chen, T. L., C. M. Cone, E. Morey-Holton and D. Feldman. 1982. Glucocorticoid regulation of 1,25 (OH)2-vitamin D3 receptors in cultured mouse bone cells. J. Biol. Chem. 257:13564.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Clemmons, D. R. and D. S. Shaw. 1983. Variables controlling somatomedin production by cultured human fibroblasts. J. Cell. Physiol. 115:137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Clemmons, D. R., L. E. Underwood, E. C. Ridgway, B. Kliman, R. N. Kjellberg and J. J. Van Wyk. 1980. Estradiol treatment of acromegaly. Amer. J. Med. 69:571.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Cohen, S. and G. Carpenter. 1975. Human epidermal growth factor: isolation and chemical and biological properties. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 72:1317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Copeland, K. C, D. M. Johnson, T. J. Kuehl and V. D. Castracane. 1984. Estrogen stimulates growth hormone and somatomedin-C in castrate and intact female baboons. J. Clin. Endocri- nol. Metab. 58:698.Google Scholar
  24. Corvol, M. T., M. F. Dumontier, M. Garabedian and R. Rappaport. 1978. Vitamin D and cartilage. II. Biological activity of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and 24,25 and 1,25-dihydroxycho-lecalciferols on cultured growth plate chondrocytes. Endocrinology 102:1269.Google Scholar
  25. Daughaday, W. H., A. C. Herington and L. S. Phillips. 1975. The regulation of growth by en- docrines. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 37:211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Deuel, T. F., J. S. Huang, S. S. Huang, P. Stroobant and M. D. Waterfield. 1983. Expression of a platelet-derived growth factor-like protein in simian sarcoma virus transformed cells. Science 221:1348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Dietrich, J. W., E. Canalis, D. M. Maina and L. G. Raisz. 1976. Hormonal control of bone collagen synthesis in vitro: effects of parathyroid hormone and calcitonin. Endocrinology 98:943.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Elford, P. R., R. Felix, M. Cecchini and H. Fleisch. 1987. Osteoblast-like cells produce macro- phage colony-stimulating factor which is enhanced by various bone-resorbing agents. In: D. V. Cohn, T. J. Martin and P. J. Meunier (Ed.) Calcium Regulation and Bone Metabolism: Basic and Clinical Aspects. Vol. 9, pp 279–282. Elsevier Science Publ., New York.Google Scholar
  29. Elgin, R. G., W. H. Busby, Jr., and D. R. Clemmons. 1987. An insulin-like growth factor (GF) binding protein enhances the biologic response to IGF-I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:3254–3258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Eriksen, E. F., N. J. Berg, M. L. Graham, K. G. Mann, T. C. Spelsberg and B. L. Riggs. 1987. Evidence of estrogen receptors in human bone cells. J. Bone Miner. Res. 2:238 (Abstr.).Google Scholar
  31. Foley, T. P., S. P. Nissley, R. L. Stevens, C. G. King, V. C. Hascall, R. E. Humbel, P. A. Short and M. M. Rechler. 1982. Demonstration of receptors for insulin and insulin-like growth factors on swarm rat chondrosarcoma chondrocytes. J. Biol. Chem. 257:663.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Froesch, E. R., J. Zapf, T. K. Audhya, E. Ben-Porath, B. J. Segen and K. D. Gibson. 1976. Nonsuppressible insulin-like activity and thyroid hormones: major pituitary-dependent sulfation factors for chick embryo cartilage. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73:2904.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Frolik, C. A., L. L. Dart, C. A. Meyers, D. M. Smith and M. B. Sporn. 1983. Purification and initial characterization of a type B transforming growth factor from human placenta. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80:3676.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Gallagher, J. C, B. L. Riggs and H. F. DeLuca. 1980. Effect of estrogens on calcium absorption and serum vitamin D metabolites in postmenopausal osteoporosis. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 51:1359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Gee, I. and T. R. Preston. 1957. The effect of hexoestrol implantation on carcass composition and efficiency of food utilization in fattening lambs. Brit. J. Nutr. 11:329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Gennant, H. K., J. M. Baron, E. Paloyan and J. Jowsey. 1975. Osteosclerosis in primary hyper- parathyroidism. Amer. J. Med. 59:104.Google Scholar
  37. Goldring, M. B. and S. Krane. 1987. Modulation of collagen synthesis and procollagen mRNA levels in human chondrocyte, synovial cell and fibroblast cultures by interleukin 1. In: D. V. Cohn, T. J. Martin and P. J. Meunier (Ed.) Calcium Regulation and Bone Metabolism: Basic and Clinical Aspects. Vol. 9, pp 444–449. Elsevier Science Publ., New York.Google Scholar
  38. Gospodarowicz, D. and J. S. Moran. 1975. Mitogenic effect of fibroblast growth factor on early passage cultures of human and murine fibroblasts. J. Cell Biol. 66:451.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Gourmelen, M., F. Girard and M. Binoux. 1982. Serum somatomedin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and IGF carrier levels in patients with Cushing’s syndrome or receiving glucocorticoid therapy. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 54:885.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Gowen, M., D. Wood and R. G. G. Russell. 1985. Stimulation of the proliferation of human bone cells in vitro by human monocyte products with interleukin-1 activity. J. Clin. Invest. 75:1223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Green, H., M. Minoru and T. Nixon. 1985. A dual effector theory of growth-hormone action. Differentiation 29:195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Hahn, T. J., S. J. Downing and J. M. Phang. 1971. Insulin effect on amino acid transport in bone: dependence on protein synthesis and Na+. Amer. J. Physiol. 220:1717.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Hahn, T. J., L. R. Halsteal, S. L. Teitelbaum and B. H. Hahn. 1979. Altered mineral metabolism in glucocorticoid-induced osteopenia effect of 25-hydroxyvitamin D administration. J. Clin. Invest. 64:655.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Halloran, B. P., H. F. DeLuca, E. Barthell, S. Yamada, M. Ohmori and H. Takayama. 1981. An examination of the importance of 24-hydroxylation to the function of vitamin D during early development. Endocrinology 108:2067.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Halme, J., J. Vitto, K. I. Kivirikko and L. Saxen. 1972. Effect of triiodothyronine on the metab- olism of collagen in cultured embryonic bones. Endocrinology 90:1476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Heath, H., P. W. Lambert, J. W. Service and S. Arnaud. 1979. Calcium homeostasis in diabetes mellitus. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 49:462.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Henry, H. L. and A. W. Norman. 1978. Vitamin D: two dihydroxylated metabolites are required for normal chicken egg hatchability. Science 201:835.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Hill, D. J. 1979. Stimulation of cartilage zones of the calf costochondral growth plate in vitro by growth hormone dependent rat plasma somatomedin activity. J. Endocrinol. 83:219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Hintz, R. L. and F. Liu. 1977. Demonstration of specific plasma protein binding sites for soma- tomedin. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 45:988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Holder, A. T., M. A. Preece and E. M. Spencer. 1981. Effect of bovine growth hormone and a partially pure preparation of somatomedin on various growth parameters in hypopituitary dwarf mice. J. Endocrinol. 89:275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Howard, G. A., B. L. Bottemiller, R. T. Timer, J. L. Rader and D. J. Baylink. 1981. Parathyroid hormone stimulates bone formation and resorption in organ culture: evidence for a coupling mechanism. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78:3204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Howard, G. A. and E. M. Spencer. 1984. Somatomedins A and C directly stimulate bone cell proliferation in vitro. In: D. V. Cohn, T. Fujita, J. T. Potts and R. V. Talmage (Ed.) Endo-crine Control of Bone and Calcium Metabolism, pp 86–89. Elsevier Science Publ., New York.Google Scholar
  53. Ibbotson, K. J., S. M. D’Souze, K. W. Ng, C. K. Osborne, M. Niall, T. J. Martin and G. R. Mundy. 1983. Tumor-derived growth factor increases bone resorption in a tumor associated with humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy. Science 221:1292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Isaksson, O. G. P., J.-O. Jansson and I. A. M. Gause. 1982. Growth hormone stimulates longi- tudinal bone growth directly. Science 216:1237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Jansson, J.-O., S. Eden and O. Isaksson. 1983. Sites of action of testosterone and estradiol on longitudinal bone growth. Amer. J. Physiol. 244:E135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Kan, K. W., R. L. Cruess, B. I. Posner, H. J. Guyda and S. Solomon. 1984. Hormone receptors in the epiphyseal cartilage. J. Endocrinol. 103:125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Klein, B., M. Jourdan, B. Durie, J. F. Rossi and R. Bataille. 1987. Spontaneous production of bone cytokines by human myeloma cell lines. J. Bone Miner. Res. 2:42 (Abstr.).Google Scholar
  58. Kragstrup, J., F. Meisen and L. Mosekilde. 1981. Effects of thyroid hormone(s) on mean wall thickness of trabecular bone packets. Metab. Bone Dis. Relat. Res. 3:181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Levin, M. E., V. C. Boisseau and L. V. Avioli. 1976. Effects of diabetes mellitus on bone mass in juvenile and adult-onset diabetes. N. Engl. J. Med. 294:241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. McNair, P., S. Madsbad, M. S. Christensen, C. Christiansen, O. K. Faber, C. Binder, and I. Transbøl. 1979. Bone mineral loss in insulin-treated diabetes mellitus: studies on pathogen- esis. Acta Endocrinol. (Copenhagen) 90:463.Google Scholar
  61. Manologas, S. C, D. C. Anderson and G. A. Lumb. 1979. Glucocorticoids regulate the concen- trations of 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol receptors in bone. Nature 277:314.Google Scholar
  62. Marquardt, H., M. W. Hunkapiller, L. E. Hood and G. J. Todaro. 1984. Rat transforming growth factor type 1: Structure and relation to epidermal growth factor. Science 223:1079.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Miller, S. C. 1978. Rapid activation of the medullary bone osteoclast cell surface by parathyroid hormone. J. Cell Biol. 76:615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Miller, S. C, B. P. Halloran, H. F. DeLuca, S. Yamada, H. Takayama and W. S. Jee. 1981. Studies on the role of 24-hydroxylation of vitamin D in the mineralization of cartilage and bone of vitamin D-deficient rats. Calcif. Tissue Int. 33:489.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Mohan, S., T. A. Linkhart, J. C. Jennings and D. J. Baylink. 1987. Identification and quantifi- cation of four distinct growth factors stored in human bone matrix. J. Bone Miner. Res. 2:44 (Abstr.).Google Scholar
  66. Mundy, G. R., J. G. Shapiro, E. M. Canalis and L. G. Raisz. 1976. Direct stimulation of bone resorption by thyroid hormones. J. Clin. Invest. 58:529.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Parfitt, A. M. 1976. The actions of parathyroid hormone on bone: relation to bone remodeling and turnover, calcium homeostasis and metabolic bone disease. Metabolism 25:1033.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Peck, W. A., J. Brandt and I. Miller. 1967. Hydrocortisone-induced inhibition of protein synthesis and uridine incorporation in isolated bone cells in vitro. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 57:1599.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Peck, W. A. and K. Messinger. 1970. Nucleoside and ribonucleic acid metabolism in isolated bone cells. J. Biol. Chem. 245:2722.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Pfeilschifter, J., and G. R. Mundy. 1987. TGFβ stimulates osteoblast activity and is released during the bone resorption process. In: D. V. Cohn, T. J. Martin and P. J. Meunier (Ed.) Calcium Regulation and Bone Metabolism: Basic and Clinical Aspects. Vol. 9, pp 405–454. Elsevier Science Publ., New York.Google Scholar
  71. Poser, J. W. and P. A. Price. 1979. A method for decarboxylation of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid in proteins. Properties of the decarboxylated gamma-carboxyglutamic acid protein from calf bones. J. Biol. Chem. 254:431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Raisz, L. G. and B. E. Kream. 1981. Hormonal control of skeletal growth. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 43:225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Raisz, L. G., C. L. Trummel, M. F. Holick and H. F. DeLuca. 1972a. 1,25-dihydroxycholecal- ciferol, a potent stimulator of bone resorption in tissue culture. Science 175:768.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Raisz, L. G., C. L. Trummel, J. A. Wener and H. Simmons. 1972b. Effect of glucocorticoids on bone resorption in tissue cultures. Endocrinology 90:961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Raisz, L. G., J. Y. Vanderhoek, H. A. Simmons, B. E. Kream and K. C. Nicolaou. 1979. Prostaglandin synthesis by fetal rat bone in vitro: evidence for a role of prostacyclin. Prosta- glandins 17:905.Google Scholar
  76. Reeve, J., M. Arlot, M. Bernat, S. Charhon, C. Edouard, D. Slovik, F. J. Vismans, and P. J. Meunier. 1981. Calcium-47 kinetic measurements of bone turnover compared to bone histo- morphometry in osteoporosis: the influence of human parathyroid fragment (hPTH 1–34) ther- apy. Metab. Bone Dis. Relat. Res. 3:23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Reeve, J., P. J. Meunier, J. A. Parsons, M. Bernât, O. L. M. Bijvoet, P. Courpron, C. Edouard, L. Klenerman, R. M. Neer, J. C. Renier, D. Slovik, F. J. F. E. Vismans and J. T. Potts. 1980. Anabolic effect of human parathyroid hormone fragment on trabecular bone in involu- tional osteoporosis—a multicentre trial. Brit. Med. J. 280:1340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Rinderknecht, E. and R. E. Humbel. 1978a. The amino acid sequence of human insulin-like growth factor I and its structural homology with proinsulin. J. Biol. Chem. 253:2769.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Rinderknecht, E. and R. E. Humbel. 1978b. Primary structure of human insulin-like growth factor II. FEBS Lett. 89:283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Rodan, S. B., G. A. Rodan, H. A. Simmons, R. W. Walenga, M. B. Feinstein and L. G. Raisz. 1981. Bone resorptive factor produced by osteosarcoma cells with osteoblastic features is PGE2. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 102:1358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Rowe, D. W. and B. E. Kream. 1982. Regulation of collagen synthesis in fetal rat calvaria by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. J. Biol. Chem. 257:8009.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Russell, S. M. and E. M. Spencer. 1985. Local injections of human or rat growth hormone or of purified human somatomedin-C stimulate unilateral tibial epiphyseal growth in hypophysec- tomized rats. Endocrinology 116:2563.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Salmon, W. D., Jr. and W. H. Daughaday. 1957. A hormonally controlled serum factor which stimulates sulfate incorporation by cartilage in vitro. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 49:825.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Sammon, P. J., T. J. Wronski, J. A. Flueck and D. A. Cohen. 1987. Humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy: Evidence for interleukin-I activity as a bone resorbing factor released by human transitional-cell carcinoma cells. In: D. V. Cohn, T. J. Martin and P. J. Meunier (Ed.) Cal- cium Regulation and Bone Metabolism: Basic and Clinical Aspects. Vol. 9, pp 383–390. Elsevier Science Publ., New York.Google Scholar
  85. Sato, K., Y. Fujii, T. Kachiuchi, K. Kasono and K. Shizume. 1987. Production of interleukin 1 alpha (IL-lα)-like activity and colony stimulating activity by clonal squamous cell carcinomas derived from patients with hypercalcemia and leukocytosis. In: D. V. Cohn, T. J. Martin and P. J. Meunier (Ed.) Calcium Regulation and Bone Metabolism: Basic and Clinical Aspects. Vol. 9, pp 149–154. Elsevier Science Publ., New York.Google Scholar
  86. Schlechter, N. L., S. M. Russell, E. M. Spencer and C. S. Nicoll. 1986. Evidence suggesting that the direct growth-promoting effect of growth hormone on cartilage in vivo is mediated by local production of somatomedin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83:7932.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Schmid, C., T. Steiner and E. R. Froesch. 1983. Insulin-like growth factors stimulate synthesis of nucleic acids and glycogen in cultured calvaría cells. Calcif. Tissue Int. 35:578.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Schneider, L. E., L. M. Nowosielski and H. P. Schedl. 1977. Insulin-treatment of diabetic rats: effects of duodenal calcium absorption. Endocrinology 100:67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Schoenle, E., J. Zapf, R. E. Humbel and E. R. Froesch. 1982. Insulin-like growth factor I stim- ulates growth in hypophysectomized rats. Nature 206:252.Google Scholar
  90. Seeman, E., H. W. Wahner, K. P. Offord, R. Kuman, W. J. Johnson and B. L. Riggs. 1982. Differential effects of endocrine dysfunction on the axial and the appendicular skeleton. J. Clin. Invest. 69:1302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Shore, R. M., R. W. Chesney, R. B. Mazess, P. G. Rose and G. J. Bargman. 1981. Osteopenia in juvenile diabetes. Calcif. Tissue Int. 33:455.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Si, E. C. C., E. M. Spencer, C. C. Liu and G. A. Howard. 1988. Synergism between insulin-like growth factor-I: a parathyroid hormone in bone metabolism. J. of Bone and Mineral Research 3 (Suppl. 1) 113S.Google Scholar
  93. Silberberg, M. and R. Silberberg. 1971. Steroid hormones and bone. In: G. H. Bourne (Ed.) The Biochemistry and Physiology of Bone. Vol. 3, pp 401–484. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  94. Silbermann, M. 1983. Hormones and cartilage. In: B. K. Hall (Ed.) Cartilage. Vol. 2, pp 327–368. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  95. Simmons, D. J. 1966. Collagen formation and endochondral ossification in estrogen treated mice. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 121:1165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Simpson, M. E., C. Asling and H. M. Evans. 1950. Some endocrine influences on skeletal growth and differentiation. Yale J. Biol. Med. 23:1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Slovik, D. M., M. A. Daly, S. H. Doppelt, J. T. Potts, Jr., D. I. Rosenthal and R. M. Neer. 1987. Increases in vertebral bone density of postmenopausal osteoporotics after treatment with hPTH-(l-34) fragment plus 1,25 (OH2) D3: an interim report. In: D. V. Cohn, T. J. Martin and P. J. Meunier (Ed.) Calcium Regulation and Bone Metabolism: Basic and Clinical Aspects. Vol. 9, pp 119–122. Elsevier Science Publ., New York.Google Scholar
  98. Smeets, T. and S. van Buul-Offers. 1983. The influence of growth hormone, somatomedins, pro- lactin and thyroxine on the morphology of the proximal tibial epiphysis and growth plate of Snell dwarf mice. Growth 47:160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Somjen, D., G. J. Somjen, Y. Weisman and I. Binderman. 1982. Evidence for 24,25-dihydroxy- cholecalciferol receptors in long bones of newborn rats. Biochem J. 204:31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Spencer, E. M., M. Khalil and O. Tobiassen. 1980. Experimental diabetes in the rat causes an insulin-reversible decrease in renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3–1α-hydroxylase activity. Endocri- nology 107:300.Google Scholar
  101. Spencer, E. M., M. Ross and B. Smith. 1983. The identity of human insulin-like growth factors I and II with somatomedins C and A with rat IGF I and II. In: E. M. Spencer (Ed.) Insulin- like Growth Factors/Somatomedins. pp 81–96. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin.Google Scholar
  102. Stern, P. H. 1969. Inhibition by steroids of parathyroid hormone-induced Ca45 release from em- bryonic rat bone in vitro. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 168:211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Stiles, C. D., G. T. Capone, C. D. Scher, H. N. Antoniades, J. J. Van Wyk and W. J. Pledger. 1979. Dual control of cell growth by somatomedins and platelet-derived growth factor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76:1279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Stuart, C. A., R. W. Furlanetto and H. E. Lebovitz. 1979. The insulin receptor of embryonic chicken cartilage. Endocrinology 105:1293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Sullivan, R. and M. Klagsbrun. 1985. Purification of cartilage-derived growth factor by heparin affinity chromatography. J. Biol. Chem. 260 (4) 2399–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Tashjian, A. H., Jr., E. L. Hohmann, H. N. Antoniades and L. Levine. 1982. Platelet-derived growth factor stimulates bone resorption via a prostaglandin-mediated mechanism. Endocri- nology 111:118.Google Scholar
  107. Tashjian, A. H., Jr., and L. Levine. 1978. Epidermal growth factor stimulates prostaglandin production and bone resorption in cultured mouse calvaría. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 85:966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Tessler, R. H. and W. D. Salmon. 1975. Glucocorticoid inhibition of sulfate incorporation by cartilage of normal rats. Endocrinology 96:898.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Thompson, B. M. and T. J. Chambers. 1985. Lipoxygenase inhibitors abolish responsiveness of osteoblast-osteoclast co-cultures to PTH and IL-1. Calcif. Tissue Int. 38:S14.Google Scholar
  110. Todaro, G. J., C. Fryling and J. E. DeLarco. 1980. Transforming growth factors produced by certain human tumor cells: Polypeptides that interact with epidermal growth factor receptors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77:5258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Turner, R. T., J. E. Puzas, M. D. Forte, G. E. Lester and T. K. Gray. 1980. In vitro synthesis of a 1α,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol and 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol by isolated calvarial cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77:5720.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Urist, M. R., Y. K. Kuo, A. G. Brownell, W. M. Hohl, J. Buyske, A. Lietze., P. Tempst, M. Hunkapiller and R. J. DeLange. 1984. Purification of bovine bone morphogenic protein by hydroxyapatite chromatography. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81:371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Valentin-Opran, A., P. D. Delmas, P. M. Chavassieux, C. Chenu, S. Saez and P. J. Meunier. 1986. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 stimulates the somatomedin-C secretion by human bone cells in vitro. J. Bone Miner. Res. 1 (Suppl. I), (Abstract 139).Google Scholar
  114. Van Sickle, D. C. 1985. Control of bone growth. J. Anim. Sci. 61 (Suppl. 2)76.Google Scholar
  115. Voelkel, E. F., A. H. Tashjian, Jr., and L. Levine. 1980. Cyclooxygenase products of arachidonic acid metabolism by mouse bone in organ culture. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 620:418.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Weiss, R. E. and A. H. Reddi. 1980. Influence of experimental diabetes and insulin on matrix- induced cartilage and bone differentiation. Amer. J. Physiol. 238:E200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Wiedemann, E., E. Schwartz and A. G. Frantz. 1976. Acute and chronic estrogen effects upon serum somatomedin activity, growth hormone, and prolactin in man. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 42:942.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Wiske, P. S., S. M. Wentworth, J. A. Norton, Jr., S. Epstein and C. C. Johnston, Jr. 1982. Evaluation of bone mass and growth in young diabetics. Metabolism 31:848.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Martin Spencer
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Growth and DevelopmentChildren’s Hospital of San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA

Personalised recommendations