Surface and Cracking Properties of Expanded Clays Dried with a Supercritical Fluid

  • M. L. Occelli
  • K. Takahama
  • M. Yokoyama
  • S. Hirao


After expansion with SiO2·TiO2 colloidal particles and supercritical drying (SCD) with CO2, samples of montmorillonite and saponite can generate materials with high (450–650 m2/g) surface area, macroporosity (350–400 m2/g), and pore volume (~1.5 cc/g), which are thermally stable to 800°C. If drying at supercritical conditions is replaced by air drying (AD), the clays lose their macroporosity, and in the case of montmorillonite, a large decrease in BET surface area is also observed.


Differential Thermal Analysis Acid Site Supercritical Fluid Silicate Layer Lewis Acid Site 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    G. W. Brindley, and R. E. Sempels. Clays and Clay Miner. 12, 229 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. Yamanaka, and G. W. Brindley. Clays and Clay Miner. 27, 119 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. L. Occelli. Proc. Int. Clay.. Conf., Denver 1985;Google Scholar
  4. L. G. Schultz, H. van Olphen and F. A. Mumpton Eds., p. 319 (1987).Google Scholar
  5. 4.
    S. Yamanaka, T. Nishihara, M. Hattori and Y. Suzuki. Mat. Chem. Phys., 17, 87 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 5.
    S. Sterte, Clays and Clay Miner. 6, 658 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 6.
    S. Yamanaka, T. Nishihara and M. Hattori. Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 111, 283 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 7.
    J. Shabtai, M. Rosell, and M. Tokarz. Clays and Clay Miner. 32, 99 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 8.
    M. L. Occelli, J. M. Stencel and S. L. Suib in “Chemistry of Microporous Crystals,” T. Inui, S. Namba and T. Tatsumi, Eds., Kodansha, Tokyo, p. 353 (1991).Google Scholar
  10. 9.
    A. Schutz, W. E. E. Stone, G. Poncelet and J. J. Fripiat. Clays and Clay Miner. 35, 251 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 10..
    J. Guan, E. Min and Z. Yu in U.S. Pat. No. 4,757,040 (1987).Google Scholar
  12. 11.
    M. L. Occelli in preprints 5th Int. Symp. on Sci. Bases Prop. Het. Catalysts, Louvain-La-Neuve, Belgium, p. 99 (1990).Google Scholar
  13. 12.
    M. L. Occelli, in “Keynotes in Energy Related Catalysis,” S. Kaliaguine Ed., Elsevier, 1988, p. 101.Google Scholar
  14. 13.
    F. Figueras. Catal. Review 30, 3, 457, (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 14.
    T. J. Pinnavaia, M. S. Tzou, S. D. Landau and R. H. Raythathe. Mol. Catal. 27, 195 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 15.
    M. L. Occelli in U.S. Pat. No. 4,761,391 (1988).Google Scholar
  17. 16.
    M. L. Occelli, J. Lynch and J. V. Sanders. J. CataL 197, 2, 557 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 17.
    M. L. Occelli, S. D. Landau, and T. J. Pinnavaia. J. CataL 90, 256 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 18.
    K. Takahama, M. Yokoyama, S. Hirao, S. Yamanaka and M. Hattori. J. Mat. Scl. (in press).Google Scholar
  20. 19.
    P. H. Tewari, A. J. Hunt and K. D. Lofftus. Mat. Letters, 3, 363 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 20.
    D. W. Matsonard and R. D. Smith. J. Am. Ceram, Soc., 72, 871 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 21.
    A. Bertoluzza, C. Fagano, M. A. Morelli, V. Gottardi, M. J. Guglielmi. Non-Cryst. Solids 1982, 48, 117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 22.
    E. P. Parry. J. Catal. 2, 371 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 23.
    V. C. Farmer and J. D. Russell, “Fifteenth Conference on Clays and Clay Minerals, Pittsburgh, PA; S. W. Bailey, Ed., p. 121 (1966).Google Scholar
  25. 24.
    V. C. Farmer. Min. Mag. 31, 829 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 25.
    P. F. Barron and R. L. Frost. Am. Mineral, 70, 758 (1985).Google Scholar
  27. 26.
    S. Komarneni, C. A. Fyfe, G. J. Kennedy, H. Sorobl. J Am. Ceram. Soc., 69, C 45 (1986).Google Scholar
  28. 27.
    M. L. Occelli, P. Peden, P. Ritz and P. S. Iyer (in preparation).Google Scholar
  29. 28.
    F. Ciapetta and D. Henderson. Oil and Gas Journal 65, 88 (1967).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. L. Occelli
    • 1
  • K. Takahama
    • 2
  • M. Yokoyama
    • 2
  • S. Hirao
    • 2
  1. 1.Unocal CorporationBreaUSA
  2. 2.Central Research LaboratoryMatsushita Electric Works, Ltd.Osaka 571Japan

Personalised recommendations