Advertisement

New Interpretations of the Phyletic Position of Oligocene Hominoids

  • J. G. Fleagle
  • R. F. Kay
Part of the Advances in Primatology book series (AIPR)

Abstract

In attempts to trace the ancestry of living hominoids, the Miocene apes from Europe, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa have long played a central role. First described over 125 years ago, the genera Dryopithecus and Pliopithecus were recognized from their initial descriptions as an ancestral pongid and hylobatid, respectively, a situation which Darwin (1871) acknowledged and which, until most recently, was universally accepted.

Keywords

World Monkey Zygomatic Arch Occlusal View Lingual Cingulum Mandibular Corpus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abel, O. 1931. Die Stellung des Menschen im Rahmen der Wirbeltiere, G. Fisher, Jena.Google Scholar
  2. Andrews, P. 1970. Two new fossil primates from the Lower Miocene of Kenya. Nature (Lond.) 288: 537–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andrews, P. 1978. A revision of the Miocene Hominoidea of East Africa. Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Geol. 30 (2): 85–244.Google Scholar
  4. Andrews, P. 1981. Species diversity and diet in monkeys and apes during the Miocene, in: Aspects of Human Evolution ( C. Stringer, ed.), pp. 25–62, Taylor and Francis, London.Google Scholar
  5. Cartmill, M., MacPhee, R. D. E., and Simons, E. L. 1981. Anatomy of the temporal bone in early anthropoids, with remarks on the problem of anthropoid affinities. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 56: 3–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Conroy, G. C. 1976a. Primate postcranial remains from the Oligocene of Egypt. Contrib. Primatol. 8: 1–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Conroy, G. C. 19766. Hallucial tarsometatarsal joint in an Oligocene anthropoid, Aegyptopithecus zeuxis. Nature (Loud.) 263: 684–686.Google Scholar
  8. Darwin, C. 1871. The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, John Murray, London.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Davis, P. R., and Napier, J. (1963). A reconstruction of the skull of Proconsul africanus (R.S. 51). Folio Primatol. 1: 20–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Delson, E. 1975. Toward the origin of the Old World monkeys, in: Evolution des Vertébrés-Problèmes Actuels de Paléontologie. Colloq. Int. Cent. Nat. Rech. Sci. 218: 839–850.Google Scholar
  11. Delson, E. 1977. Catarrhine phylogeny and classification: Principles, methods and comments. J. Hum. Evol. 6: 433–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Delson, E., and Andrews, P. 1975. Evolution and interrelationships of the catarrhine primates, in: Phylogeny of the Primates ( W. P. Luckett and F. S. Szalay, eds.), pp. 405–446, Plenum, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fisher, D. C. 1981. Crocodilian scatology, microvertebrate concentrations and enamel-less teeth. Paleobiology 7 (2): 262–275.Google Scholar
  14. Fleagle, J. G. 1980. Locomotor behavior of the earliest anthropoids: A review of the current evidence. Z. Morphol. Anthropol. 71: 149–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Fleagle, J. G., and Rosenberger, A. L. 1983. Cranial morphology of earliest anthropoids, in: Morphologie Evolutive, Morphogenese du Crane et Anthropogenese ( M. Sakka, ed.) CNRS, Paris.Google Scholar
  16. Fleagle, J. G., and Simons, E. L. 1978a. Micropithecus clarki, a small ape from the Miocene of Uganda. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 49: 427–440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fleagle, J. G., and Simons, E. L. 1978b. Humeral morphology of the earliest apes. Nature (Loud.) 273: 705–707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fleagle, J. G., and Simons, E. L. 1979. Anatomy of the bony pelvis of parapithecid primates. Fol Primatol. 31: 176–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fleagle, J. G., and Simons, E. L. 1982. The humerus of Aegyptopithecus zeuxis, a primitive anthropoid. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 59 (2): 175–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fleagle, J. G., Simons, E. L., and Conroy, G. C. 1975. Ape limb bone from Oligocene of Egypt. Science 189: 135–137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fleagle, J. G., Kay, R. F., and Simons, E. L. 1980. Sexual dimorphism in early anthropoids. Nature (Lond.) 287: 328–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gingerich, P. D. 1973. Anatomy of the temporal bone in the Oligocene anthropoid Apidium and the origin of the Anthropoidea. Folio Primatol. 19: 329–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gingerich, P. D. 1977a. Correlation of tooth size and body size in living hominoid primates, with a note on relative brain size in Aegyptopithecu.s and Proconsul. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 47: 395–398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gingerich, P. D. 1977b. Radiation of Eocene Adapidae in Europe. Géobios, Mém. Spéc. 1: 165–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gingerich, P. D. 1978. The Stuttgart collection of Oligocene primates from the Fayum Province of Egypt. Paleontol. 2. 52: 82–92.Google Scholar
  26. Gregory, W. K., 1916. Studies on the evolution of the primates. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 35: 239–355.Google Scholar
  27. Gregory, W. K. 1922. The Origin and Evolution of the Human Dentition, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore. 548 pp.Google Scholar
  28. Groves, P. 1972. Systematics and phylogeny of gibbons. Gibbon and Siamang 1: 1–80.Google Scholar
  29. Hill, W. C. O. 1966. Primates. Comparative Anatomy and Taxonomy. Volume VI, Catarrhini, Cercopithecoidea, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. 757 pp.Google Scholar
  30. Howell, F. C. 1967. Recent advances in human evolutionary studies. Q. Rev. Biol. 42: 471–513.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kalin, J. 1961. Sur les Primates de l’Oligocène inférieur d’Egypte. Ann. Paleontol. 47: 1–48.Google Scholar
  32. Kalin, J. 1962. Über Moeripithecus markgrafi Schlosser und die phyletischen Vorstufen der Bilophodontie der Cercopithecoidea. Bibl. Primatol. 1: 32–42.Google Scholar
  33. Kay, R. F. 1977a. The evolution of molar occlusion in the Cercopithecidae and early catarrhines. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 46: 327–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kay, R. F. 1977b. Diets of early Miocene African hominoids. Nature (Lond.) 268: 628–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kay, R. F., and Cartmill, M. 1977. Cranial morphology and adaptations of Palaechthon nacimienti and other Paromomyidae (Plesiadapoidea, ?Primates), with a description of a new genus and species. J. Hum. Evol. 6: 19–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kay, R. F., and Simons, E. L. 1980. The ecology of Oligocene African Anthropoidea. Int. J. Primatol. 1: 22–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kay, R. F., Fleagle, J. G., and Simons, E. L. 1981. A revision of the Oligocene apes from the Fayum Province, Egypt. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 55: 293–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Keith, A. 1923. Man’s posture: Its evolution and disorders. Br. Med. J. 1: 451–454.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kinzey, W. 1971. Evolution of the human canine tooth. Am. Anthropol. 73: 680–694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kurten,-B. 1972. Not from the Apes, Vantage Books, New York.Google Scholar
  41. Le Gros Clark, W. E. 1934. Early Forerunners of Man, Balliere, London. 296 pp.Google Scholar
  42. Le Gros Clark, W. E., and Leakey, L. S. B. 1951. The Miocene Hominoidea of East Africa. Fossil Mammals of Africa (Br. Mus. Nat. Hist.) 1: 1–117.Google Scholar
  43. Napier, J., and Davis; P. R. 1959. The fore-limb skeleton and associated remains of Proconsul africanus. Fossil Mammals of Africa (Br. Mus. Nat. Hist.) 16: 1–69.Google Scholar
  44. Osborn, H. F. 1927. Recent discoveries relating to the origin and antiquity of man. Palaeobiologica 1: 189–202.Google Scholar
  45. Pilbeam, D. R. 1967. Man’s earliest ancestors. Sci. J. 3 (2): 47–53.Google Scholar
  46. Preuschoft, H. 1975. Body posture and mode of locomotion in fossil primates: Method and example-A egyptopithecus zeuxis, in: Proceedings from the Symposia of the Fifth Congress of the International Primatological Society 1974, pp. 345-359, Japan Science Press, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  47. Radinsky, L. 1973. Aegyptopithecus endocasts: Oldest record of a pongid brain. Am. J. Phys. An-thropol. 39: 239–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Radinsky, L. 1977. Early primate brains: Facts and fiction. J. Hum. Evol. 6: 79–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Raven, H. C. 1950. The Anatomy of the Gorilla, Columbia University Press, New York. 259 pp.Google Scholar
  50. Remane, A. 1965. Die Geschichte der Menschenaffen, in: Menschliche Abstammungslehre ( G. Heberer, ed.), pp. 249–309, Fischer, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  51. Schlosser, M. 1910. Über einige fossile Saugetiere aus dem Oligocan von Ägypten. Zool. Anz. 34: 500–508.Google Scholar
  52. Schlosser, M. 1911. Beiträge zur kenntnis der Oligozänen Landsäugetiere aus dem Fayum, Ägypten. Beitr. Paläontol. Oesterreich-Ungarns Orients 24: 51–67.Google Scholar
  53. Schön-Ybarra, M., and Conroy, G. C. 1978. Nonmetric features in the ulna of Aegyptopithecus, Alouatta, Ateles, Lagothrix. Folia Primatol. 29: 178–195.Google Scholar
  54. Simons, E. L. 1962. Two new primate species from the African Oligocene. Postilla (Peabody Mus. Nat. Hist., Yale Univ.) 64: 1–12.Google Scholar
  55. Simons, E. L. 1965. New fossil apes from Egypt and the initial differentiation of the Hominoidea. Nature (Lond.) 205: 135–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Simons, E. L. 1967. The earliest apes. Sci. Am. 217 (6): 28–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Simons, E. L. 1970. The deployment and history of Old World monkeys (Cercopithecidae, Primates), in: Old World Monkeys ( U. R. Napier and P. H. Napier, eds.), pp. 97–137, Academic, New York.Google Scholar
  58. Simons, E. L. 1972. Primate Evolution, Macmillan, New York. 322 pp.Google Scholar
  59. Simons, E. L. 1974a. The relationships of Aegyptopithecus to other primates. Ann. Geol. Surv. Egypt 4: 149–156.Google Scholar
  60. Simons, E. L. 1974b. Parapithecus grangeri (Parapithecidae, Old World Higher Primates): New species from the Oligocene of Egypt and the initial differentiation of the Cercopithecoidea. Postilla (Peabody Mus. Nat. Hist., Yale Univ.) 166: 1–12.Google Scholar
  61. Simons, E. L., and Fleagle, J. G. 1973. The history of extinct gibbon-like primates. Gibbon and Siamang 2: 121–148.Google Scholar
  62. Simons, E. L., and Pilbeam, D. 1972. Hominoid paleo-primatology, in: The Functional and Evolu-tionary Biology of Primates ( R. Tuttle, ed.), pp. 36–62, Aldine-Atherton, Chicago.Google Scholar
  63. Simons, E. L., Andrews, P., and Pilbeam, D. R. 1978. Cenozoic apes, in: Evolution of African Mammals ( V. J. Maglio and H. B. S. Cooke, eds.), pp. 120–146, Harvard University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  64. Szalay, F. S., and Delson, E. 1979. Evolutionary History of the Primates, Academic, New York. 580 pp.Google Scholar
  65. Wood Jones, F. 1929. Man’s Place among the Mammals, Arnold, London. 371 pp.Google Scholar
  66. Zapfe, H. 1960. Die primatenfunde aus der Miozänen spaltenfüllung von Neudorf an der March (Dëvinska Nova Ves), Tschechoslowakei. Mit Anhang: Der Primatenfund aus dem Miozän von Klein Hadersdorf in Niederosterreich. Schweiz. Palaeontol. Abh. 78: 1–293.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. G. Fleagle
    • 1
  • R. F. Kay
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Anatomical Sciences, Health Sciences CenterState University of New YorkStony BrookUSA
  2. 2.Department of AnatomyDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA

Personalised recommendations