Advertisement

Apes, Humans, and Molecular Clocks

A Reappraisal
  • J. E. Cronin
Part of the Advances in Primatology book series (AIPR)

Overview

It has been over 100 years since T. H. Huxley wrote these words. Yet debate still centers on the exact genealogical relationships of apes and humans. The magnitude of this gap is of great concern. Fifteen years ago Sarich (1967) noted that the gap was “narrow yet deep.” Narrow in the sense that at the structural gene level, humans and the African apes are almost identical; deep because there are substantial morphological and profound behavioral differences between these close relatives. These differences may result from some few small genetic changes each with large phenotypic effects. An examination of the evidence of the genetic differences among the living species can place into perspective the nature of the gap separating hominids from other hominoids.

Keywords

Fossil Record Molecular Clock World Monkey Gorilla Gorilla Early Hominid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Andrews, P. 1981. Species diversity and diet in monkeys and apes during the Miocene, in: Aspects of Human Evolution ( Andrews, P, ed.), pp. 25–61, Taylor and Francis,London.Google Scholar
  2. Andrews, P., and Cronin, J. E. 1982. The relationships of Sivapithecus and Ramapithecus and the evolution of the orang-utan. Nature (Lond.) 297: 541–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Avise, J. C. 1974. The systematic value of electrophoretic data. Syst. Zool. 23: 465–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Benveniste, R. E., and Todaro, G.J. 1976. Evolution of Type C viral genes: Evidence for an Asian origin of man. Nature (Lond.) 261: 101–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bruce, E. J., and Ayala, F. J. 1979. Phylogenetic relationships between man and the apes: Electrophoretic evidence. Evolution 33: 1040–1056.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brunker, L. 1980. A comparison of locomotor adaptations of the vervet and patas monkeys, and implications for early hominid evolution. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 52: 2–8.Google Scholar
  7. Corruccini, R. S., Cronin, J. E., and Ciochon, R. L. 1979. Scaling analysis and congruence among anthropoid primate macromolecules. Hum. Biol. 51: 167–185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Corruccini, R. S., Baba, M., Goodman, M., Ciochon, R. L., and Cronin, J. E. 1980. Non-linear macromolecular evolution and the molecular clock. Evolution 34: 1216–1219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cronin, J. E. 1975. Molecular Systematics of the Order Primates, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  10. Cronin, J. E., and Meikle, W. E. 1979. The phyletic position of Theropithecus: Congruence among molecular, morphological, and paleontological evidence. Syst. Zool. 28: 259–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cronin, J. E., and Meikle, W. E. 1982. Hominid and gelada baboon evolution: Agreement between molecular and fossil time scales. Int. J. Primatol. 3: 469–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cronin, J. E., and Sarich, V. M. 1975. Molecular systematics of the New World monkeys. J. Hum. Evol. 4: 357–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cronin, J. E., Cann, R., and Sarich, V. M. 1980. Molecular evolution and systematics of the genus Macaca, in: The Macaques: Studies in Ecology, Behavior and Evolution ( D. Lindburg, ed.), pp. 31–51, Van Nostrand Rheinhold, New York.Google Scholar
  14. Cronin, J. E., Boaz, N. T., Stringer, C. B., and Rak, Y. 1981. Tempo and mode in hominid evolution. Nature (Land.) 292: 113–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cronin, J. E., Sarich, V. M., and Ryder, O.1983. Molecular evolution and speciation in the lesser apes in: Biology of the Lesser Apes (D. J. Chivers, H. Preuschoft, N. Creel, and W. Brockelman, eds.), Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh (in press).Google Scholar
  16. Delson, E. 1975. Evolutionary history of the Cercopithecidae. in: Approaches to Primate Paleobiology (F. S. Szalay, ed.). Contrib. Primatol. 5: 167–217.Google Scholar
  17. Delson, E. 1977. Vertebrate paleontology, especially of non human primates, in China, in: Paleoanthropology in the Peoples Republic of China, pp. 40–65, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  18. Ferris, S. D., Wilson, A. C., and Brown, W. M. 1981. Evolutionary tree of apes and humans based on cleavage maps of mitochondrial DNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78: 2432–2436.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Goodman, M. 1961. The role of immunochemical differences in the phyletic development of human behavior. Hum. Biol. 33: 131–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Goodman, M. 1963a. Serological analysis of the systematics of recent hominoids. Hum. Biol. 35: 377–436.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Goodman, M. 1963b. Man’s place in the phylogeny of the primates as reflected in serum proteins, in: Classification and Human Evolution (S. L. Washburn, ed.), pp. 204–234, Aldine, Chicago.Google Scholar
  22. Goodman, M. 1976. Towards a genealogical description of the Primates, in: Molecular Anthropol-ogy ( M. Goodman and R. E. Tashian, eds.), pp. 321–353, Plenum, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Goodman, M., and Moore, G. W. 1971. Immunodiffusion systematics of the primates. I. The Catarrhini. Syst. Zool. 20: 19–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gould, S. J., and Eldredge, N. 1977. Punctuated equilibria: The tempo and mode of evolution reconsidered. Paleobiology 3: 115–151.Google Scholar
  25. Greenfield, L. O. 1979. On the adaptive pattern of “Ramapithecus”. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 50: 527–548.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Howell, F. C. 1978. Hominidae, in: Evolution of African Mammals (V. J. Maglio and H. B. S. Cooke, eds.), pp. 154–248, Harvard University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  27. Moyer, B. H., Van de Velde, N. W., Goodman, M., and Roberts, R. B. 1972. Examination of hominoid evolution by DNA sequence homology. J. Hum. Evol. 1: 645–649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Huxley, T. H. 1863. Evidence as to Man’s Place in Nature, Williams and Norgate, London. 159 ppGoogle Scholar
  29. Johanson, D. C., and White, T. D. 1979. A systematic assessment of early African hominids. Science 203: 321–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Johnson, S. C. 1981. Bonobos: Generalized hominid prototypes or specialized insular dwarfs? Curr. Anthropol. 22: 363–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tr Jungers, W., and Susman, R. 1981. A reply to S. C. Johnson. Curr. Anthropol. 22: 369–370.Google Scholar
  32. Kay, R. F., Fleagle, J. G., and Simons, E. L. 1981. A revision of Oligocene apes of the Fayum Province, Egypt. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 55: 293–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. King, M. C., and Wilson, A. C. 1975. Evolution at two levels in humans and chimpanzees. Science 188: 107–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kohne, D. E. 1970. Evolution of higher organism DNA. Quart. Rev. Biophys. 3: 327–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kohne, D. 1975. DNA evolution data and its relevance to mammalian phylogeny, in: Phylogeny of the Primates ( W. P. Luckett and F. S. Szalay, eds.), pp. 249–264, Plenum, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Korey, K. A. 1981. Species number, generation length, and the molecular clock. Evolution 35: 139–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Latimer, B. M., White, T. D., Kimbel, W. H., Johanson, D. C., and Lovejoy, C. O. 1981. The pygmy chimpanzee is not a living missing link in human evolution. J. Hum. Evol. 10: 475–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Liebhaber, S. A., Goossens, M., and Kan, Y. W. 1981. Homology and concerted evolution at the a 1 and a2 loci of human a-globin. Nature (Lond.) 290: 26–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lovejoy, C. O. 1981. The origin of man. Science 211: 341–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lovejoy, C. O., Burstein, H., and Heiple, K. H. 1972. Primate phylogeny and immunological distance. Science 176: 803–805.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Margoliash, E. 1963. Primary structure and evolution of cytochrome C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 50: 672–679.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Martin, S. L., Zimmer, E. A., Kan, Y. W., and Wilson, A. C. 1980. Silent S (delta) globin genes in Old World monkeys. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77: 3563–3566.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Miller, D. A. 1977. Evolution of primate chromosomes. Science 198: 1116–1124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Nei, M. 1978. Estimation of average heterozygosity and genetic distance from a small number of individuals. Genetics 89: 583–590.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Nuttall, G. H. F. 1904. Blood Immunity and Blood Relationship, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Patterson, C. 1981. Significance of fossils in determining evolutionary relationships. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 12: 195–223.Google Scholar
  46. Pllbeam, D. 1979. Recent finds and interpretations of Miocene hominoids. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 8:333–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Read, D. W. 1975. Primate phylogeny, neutral mutations and molecular clocks. Syst. Zool. 24: 209–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Read, D. W., and Lestrel, P. E. 1970. Hominid phylogeny and immunology and rates of enzyme evolution in the Amphibia in relation to the origin of certain taxa. Evolution 20: 603–616.Google Scholar
  49. Sarich, V. M. 1967. A Quantitative Immunological Study of Evolution of Primate Albumins. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  50. Sarich, V. M. 1968. The origin of the hominids: An immunological approach, in: Perspectives on Human Evolution, Vol. 1 ( S. L. Washburn and P. C. Jay, eds.), pp. 94–121, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York.Google Scholar
  51. Sarich, V. M. 1969. Pinniped phylogeny. Syst. Zool. 18: 416–422.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sarich, V. M. 1970. Primate systematics with special reference to Old World monkeys: A protein perspective, in: Old World Monkeys U. R. Napier and P. H. Napier, eds.), pp. 175–226, Academic, New York.Google Scholar
  53. Sarich, V. M. 1971. A molecular approach to the question of human origins, in: Background for Man ( P. Dolhinow and V. M. Sarich, eds.), pp. 60–81, Little Brown, Boston.Google Scholar
  54. Sarich, V. M. 1972. Generation time and albumin evolution. Biochem. Genet. 7: 205–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sarich, V. M. 1973. Just how old is the hominid line? Yearb. Phys. Anthropol. 17: 98–112.Google Scholar
  56. Barich, V. M. 1977. Rates, sample sizes and the neutrality hypothesis for electrophoresis in evolutionary studies. Nature (Lond.) 265: 24–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sarich, V. M., and Cronin, J. E. 1976. Molecular systematics of the primates, in: Molecular Anthropology ( M. Goodman and R. E. Tashian, eds.), pp. 141–170, Plenum, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sarich, V. M., and Cronin, J. E. 1977. Generation lengths and rates of hominoid molecular evolution. Nature (Lond.) 269: 354–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sarich, V. M., and Wilson, A. C. 1966. Quantitative immunochemistry and the evolution of primate albumins, Microcomplement fixation. Science 154: 1563–1566.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sarich, V. M., and Wilson, A. C. 1967a. Rates of albumin evolution in primates. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 58: 142–148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sarich, V. M., and Wilson, A. C. 19676. Immunological time scale for hominoid evolution. Science 158: 1200–1203.Google Scholar
  62. Sarich, V. M., and Wilson, A. C. 1973. Generation time and genomic evolution in primates. Science 179: 1144–1147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Shea, B. 1981. A reply to S. C. Johnson. Curr. Anthropol. 22: 368–369.Google Scholar
  64. Simons, E. L. 1970. The deployment and history of Old World monkeys (Cercopithecidae, Primates), in: Old World Monkeys U. R. Napier and P. H. Napier, eds.), pp. 97–138, Academic, New York.Google Scholar
  65. Simons, E. L. 1976. The fossil record of primate phylogeny, in: Molecular Anthropology ( M. Goodman and R. E. Tashian, eds.), pp. 35–62, Plenum, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Simons, E. L. 1981. Man’s immediate forerunners. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. 292: 21–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Simons, E. L., and Fleagle, J. G. 1973. The history of extinct gibbon-like primates. Gibbon and Siamang 2: 121–148.Google Scholar
  68. Slighton, J. L., Blechl, A. E., and Smithies, O. 1980. Human fetal Gy and Ay globin genes: Complete nucleotide sequences suggest that DNA can be exchanged between these duplicates genes. Cell 21: 627–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Szalay, F. S., and Delson, E. 1979. Evolutionary History of the Primates, Academic, New York. 580 pp.Google Scholar
  70. Hzzell, T., and Pilbeam, D. 1971. Phyletic divergence dates of hominoid primates: A comparison of fossil and molecular data. Evolution 25: 615–635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Walker, A. 1976. Splitting times among hominoids deduced from the fossil record, in: Molecular Anthropology ( M. Goodman and R. E. Tashian, eds.), pp. 63–77, Plenum, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Washburn, S. L. 1963. Behavior and human evolution, in: Classification and Human Evolution ( S. L. Washburn, ed.), pp. 190–203, Aldine, Chicago.Google Scholar
  73. Washburn, S. L. 1973. The evolution game. J. Hum. Evol. 2: 557–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. White, T. D., Johanson, D. C., and Kimbel, W. H. 1981. Australopithecus africanus: Its phylogenetic position reconsidered. S. Afr. J. Sci. 77: 445–470.Google Scholar
  75. Wilson, A. C., Carlson, S. S., and White, T. J. 1977. Biochemical evolution. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 46: 573–639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Wooding, G. L., and Doolittle, R. F. 1972. Primate fibrinopeptide: Evolutionary significance. J. Hum. Evol. 1: 553–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Zihlman, A. L. 1981. A reply to S. C. Johnson. Current Anthropol. 22: 371–372.Google Scholar
  78. Zihlman, A. L., Cronin, J. E., Cramer, D. L., and Sarich, V. M. 1978. Pygmy chimpanzee as a possible prototype for the common ancestor of humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas. Nature (Loud.) 275: 744–746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Zimmer, E. A., Martin, S. L., Beverley, S. M., Kan, Y. W., and Wilson, A. C. 1980. Rapid duplication and loss of genes coding for the a chains of hemoglobin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77: 2158–2162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. E. Cronin
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Anthropology and Biology, Peabody MuseumHarvard UniversityCambridgeUSA

Personalised recommendations