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Historical Notes on the Geology, Dating and Systematics of the Miocene Hominoids of India

  • K. N. Prasad
Part of the Advances in Primatology book series (AIPR)

Abstract

Recent discoveries of fossil hominoids mainly from Spain, the Middle East, East Africa, India, and China have added considerably to our understanding of problems concerning the radiation and adaptation of the Hominoidea in the Mio-Pliocene. It is generally agreed that the origin of both the Pongidae and Hominidae can be identified with some species of the subfamily Dryopithecinae of the Miocene. During the last two decades, significant discoveries of much interesting material have given scope for a critical analysis of various factors concerning human origins and hominoid evolution. The main intent of this review is to piece together the relevant material recovered from India and from different segments of the Tertiary in the Euro-Asiatic region and to make observations on its morphology and distribution. During the research for this survey, the author had the occasion to study the originals housed in the various museums in U.S. and Great Britain.

Keywords

Late Miocene Historical Note Fossil Primate Miocene Hominoid Hominoid Evolution 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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References

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  42. Chopra, S. R. K. 1974. Palaeoprimatological studies in India with special reference to recent finds in the Siwaliks. Presidential Address, in: Proceedings of LXVIth Session, Indian Science Congress, Part II, pp. 1–16.Google Scholar
  43. Chopra, S. R. K., and Kaul, S. 1975. New fossil Dryopithecus material from the Nagri beds at Haritalyangar (H.P.), in: Contemporary Primatology ( S. Kondo, M. Kawai, and A. Ehara, eds.), pp. 2–11, Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  44. Chopra, S. R. K., and Kaul, S. 1979. A new species of Pliopithecus from the Indian Sivaliks. J. Hum. Evol. 8: 475–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Chow, M. C. 1958. Mammalian faunas and correlation of Tertiary and early Pleistocene of South China, J. Palaeontol. Soc. Ind. 3: 123–130.Google Scholar
  46. Colbert, E. H. 1935. Siwalik mammals in the American Museum of Natural History. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. N.S. 26: 1–401.Google Scholar
  47. Greenfield, L. O. 1979. On the adaptive pattern of “Ramapithecus.” Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 50: 527–548.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gregory, W. K., Hellman, M., and Lewis, G. E. 1938. Fossil anthropoids of the Yale-Cambridge India Expedition of 1935. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 495: 1–27.Google Scholar
  49. Hooijer, D. A. 1951. Questions relating to a new anthropoid ape from the Mio-Pliocene of the Siwaliks. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 9: 79–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lewis, G. E: 1934. Preliminary notice of new man-like apes from India. Am. J. Sci. 27: 161–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lewis, G. E. 1937. Taxonomic syllabus of Siwalik fossil anthropoids. Am. J. Sci. 34: 139–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Leakey, L. S. B. 1962. A new Lower Pliocene fossil primate from Kenya. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 13 (4): 689–696.Google Scholar
  53. Le Gros Clark, W. E., and Leakey, L. S. B. 1951. The Miocene Hominoidea of East Africa. Fossil Mammals of Africa (Br. Mus. Nat. Hist.) 1: 1–117.Google Scholar
  54. Lydekker, R. 1879. Further notices of Siwalik Mammalia. Rec. Geol. Surv. India 11:64–85. Matthew, W. D. 1929. Critical observation on Siwalik mammals. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 56: 437–560.Google Scholar
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  56. Pilgrim, G. E. 1913. The correlation of the Siwaliks with mammal horizons of Europe. Rec. Geol. Surv. India 43: 264–326.Google Scholar
  57. Pilgrim, G. E. 1915. New Siwalik primates and their bearing on the question of the evolution of man and the Anthropoidea. Rec. Geol. Surv. Ind. 45 (1): 1–74.Google Scholar
  58. Pilgrim, G. E. 1927. A Sivapithecus palate and other primate fossils from India. Mem. Geol. Surv. India. (Palaeontol. Ind.) 14: 1–26.Google Scholar
  59. Pilgrim, G. E. 1934. Correlation of fossiliferous sections in the upper Cenozoic of India. Am. Mus. Novit. 704: 1–5.Google Scholar
  60. Pilgrim, G. E. 1940. Middle Eocene mammals from North India. Proc. Zool. Soc. Ind. B 110: 127–152.Google Scholar
  61. Prasad, K. N. 1954. A preliminary report on the Siwalik rocks at Haritalyangar and Ukhli Bilaspur, Dist. Punjab. Progress Report (unpublished).Google Scholar
  62. Prasad, K. N. 1962. Fossil primates from Siwalik beds from Haritalyangar, H.P. J. Geol. Soc. Ind. 3: 86–96.Google Scholar
  63. Prasad, K. N. 1964. Upper Miocene anthropoids from the Siwalik beds of Haritalyangar H.P. Palaeontology 7 (1): 124–134.Google Scholar
  64. Prasad, K. N., 1969. Fossil anthropoids from the Siwalik System of India, in: Proceedings Second International Congress Primatology. Atlanta, GA. 1968, Vol. 2, pp. 131–134, Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  65. Prasad, K. N. 1970. The vertebrate fauna from the Siwalik Beds of Haritalyangar, H.P. India. Palaeontol. Ind. 39: 1–56.Google Scholar
  66. Prasad, K. N. 1971a. Observations on the Dryopithecines of India and Europe, in: Proceedings Third International Congress Primatology. Zurich, Vol. I, pp. 48–53, Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  67. Prasad, K. N. 1971b. Ecology of the fossil Hominoidea from the Siwaliks of India, Nature (Lond.) 232: 413–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Prasad, K. N. 1974. The hominid status of Ramapithecus. J. Ind. Acad. Geosci. 17: 77–80.Google Scholar
  69. Prasad, K. N. 1975. Observations on the paleoecology of South Asian Tertiary primates, in: Paleoanthropology, Morphology and Paleoecology (R. Tuttle, ed.), pp. 21–30, Mouton, The Hague.Google Scholar
  70. Prasad, K. N. 1977. Review of Miocene Anthropoidea from India and adjacent countries. J. Palaeontol. Soc. Ind. (Orlov Memorial Volume) 20: 382–390.Google Scholar
  71. Prasad, K. N. 1978. Observations on the genus Ramapithecus, in: Recent Advances in Primatology, Volume 3, Evolution (D. J. Chivers and K. A. Joysey, eds.), pp. 495–497, Academic, New York.Google Scholar
  72. Sahni, A., Kumar, V., and Srivastava, V. C. 1974. Dryopithecus (Subgenus: Sivapithecus) and associ- ated vertebrates from the Lower Siwaliks of Uttar Pradesh, Bull. Ind. Geol. Assoc. 7 (1): 54.Google Scholar
  73. Simons, E. L. 1968. A source for dental comparison of Ramapithecus with Australopithecus and Homo. S. Afr. J. Sci. 64 (2): 92–112.Google Scholar
  74. Simons, E. L., and Chopra, S. R. K. 1969. Gigantopithecus (Pongidae, Hominoidea). A new species from North India. Postilla (Peabody Mus. Nat. Hist., Yale Univ.) 138: 1–18.Google Scholar
  75. Simons, E. L., and Pilbeam, D. R. 1965. Preliminary revision of the Dryopithecinae (Pongidae, Anthropoidea). Folia Primatol. 3: 81–152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Szalay, F. S., and Delson, E. 1979. Evolutionary History of the Primates, Academic, New York, 580 pp.Google Scholar
  77. Von Koenigswald, G. H. R. 1981. A possible ancestral form of Gigantopithecus (Mammalia, Hominoidea) from the Chinji Layers of Pakistan. J. Hum. Evol. 10: 511–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Wadia, D. N., and Aiyengar, N. K. N. 1938. Fossil anthropoids of India. Rec. Geol. Surv. Ind. 72 (4): 467–494.Google Scholar
  79. Woo, J. K. 1957. Dryopithecus teeth from Keiyuan Yunnan. Vertebr. Palasiat. 1: 25–32.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. N. Prasad
    • 1
  1. 1.Geological Survey of IndiaHyderabadIndia

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