The Phyletic Interpretation of Macromolecular Sequence Information: Simple Methods

  • Walter M. Fitch
Part of the NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (NSSB, volume 14)


The use of specific amino acid and nucleotide sequence information for investigating evolutionary processes is increasing and will continue to do so as our sequence acquiring and data handling techniques continue to improve. This chapter describes simple methods that enable the beginner to examine sequence information for himself.


Character State Maximum Parsimony Parsimonious Tree Ancestral Node Ancestral Character State 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Camin, J.H. and Sokal, R.R., 1965, A Method for Deducing Branching Sequences in Phylogeny. Evolution, 19: 311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Dayhoff, M.O., 1972, Atlas of Protein Sequence and Structure. Nat. Biomed. Res. Fndn., Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  3. Farris, J.S., 1969, A Successive Approximations Approach to Character Weighting. Syst. Zool., 18: 374.Google Scholar
  4. Farris, J.S., 1972, Estimating Phylogenetic Trees from Distance Matrices. Amer. Naturalist, 106: 645.Google Scholar
  5. Fitch, W.M., 1971, Toward Defining the Course of Evolution: Minimum Change for a Specific Tree Topology. Syst. Zool., 20: 406–416.Google Scholar
  6. Fitch, W.M., 1973, Aspects of Molecular Evolution. Ann. Rev. Genetics, 7: 343–380.Google Scholar
  7. Fitch, W.M., 1975, Toward Finding the Tree of Maximum Parsimony, in “Proc. Eighth Internat. Conf. Numerical Taxonomy” (G.F. Estabrook, ed.), W.H. Freeman, San Francisco, 189–230.Google Scholar
  8. Fitch, W.M., 1976, The Molecular Evolution of Cytochrome c in Eukaryotes. J. Mol. Evol., 8: 13.Google Scholar
  9. Fitch, W.M., 1977, On The Problem of Discovering the Most Parsimonious Tree. Amer. Naturalist, in press.Google Scholar
  10. Fitch, W.M. and Farris, J.S., 1974, Evolutionary Trees with Minimum Nucleotide Replacements from Amino Acid Sequences. J. Mol. Evol., 3: 263–278.Google Scholar
  11. Fitch, W.M. and Margoliash, E., 1967, The Construction of Phylogenetic Trees–A Generally Applicable Method Utilizing Estimates of the Mutation Distance Obtained from Cytochrome c Sequences. Science, 155: 279–284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fitch, W.M. and Yasunobu, K.T., 1975, Phylogenies from Amino Acid Sequences Aligned with Gaps. J. Mol. Evol., 5: 1–24.Google Scholar
  13. Goodman, M., Moore, G.W., Barnabas, J., and Matsuda, G., 1974, The Phylogeny of Humal Globin Genes Investigated by the Maximum Parsimony Method. J. Mol. Evol., 3: 1.Google Scholar
  14. Hartigan, J.A., 1973, Minimum Mutation Fits to a Given Tree. Biometrics, 29: 53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Holmquist, R., 1972, Empirical Support for a Stochastic Model of Evolution. J. Mol. Evol., 1: 211.Google Scholar
  16. Moore, G.W., Barnabas, J. and Goodman, M., 1973, A Method for Constructing Maximum Parsimony Ancestral Amino Acid Sequences on a Given Network. J. Theor. Biol., 38: 459.Google Scholar
  17. Sneath, P.H.A. and Sokal, R.R., 1973, Numerical Taxonomy, W.H. Freeman, San Francisco.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Walter M. Fitch
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of Physiological ChemistryUniversity of Wisconsin Medical SchoolMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations