An Exceptional Reproductive Strategy in Anura: Nectophrynoides Occidentalis Angel (Bufonidae), an Example of Adaptation to Terrestrial Life by Viviparity

  • Francoise Xavier
Part of the NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (NSSB, volume 14)


The Nimba ridge is an important area in West Africa for speciation studies and evolutionary research. It has a large number of endemics inhabiting it among which is the toad species Nectophrynoides occidentalis. Discovered by Lamotte in 1942, this tiny toad (adult length 15–26 mm) is the only entirely viviparous anuran known. That is to say eggs develop in the oviduct of the female which gives birth to totally metamorphosed young. Such a reproductive strategy involves a number of anatomical and physiological adaptations which are quite remarkable in an amphibian.


Corpus Luteum Reproductive Strategy Follicular Phase Embryonic Growth Uterine Lumen 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francoise Xavier
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire de ZoologieEcole Normale SuperieureParisFrance

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