Comparison of Results of Aid with Fresh and Frozen Semen

  • Emil Steinberger
  • Luis J. Rodriguez-Rigau
  • Keith D. Smith


The use of frozen semen for AID has gained wide acceptance and a relatively large number of pregnancies have been reported following the use of this technique.1 A number of reports dealing with either fresh or frozen semen use in AID have been published.2-6 some authors have attempted to compare the published results for the two types of semen and concluded that the pregnancy rates are either similar or slightly lower when frozen semen is employed. 3,6,7 Actually, the reported data are difficult to evaluate. One has to compare results obtained by different groups of investigators practicing in various parts of the world, treating different populations of infertile couples and utilizing different technical and therapeutic approaches. Such comparisons are at best difficult. However, in several reports the same groups of investigators compared results with each type of semen and also concluded that pregnancy rates are indeed similar or only slightly decreased when frozen semen is used.8-10 While pregnancy rate is one of the most important parameters used in the evaluation of efficacy of AID, it is not the only measure. The number of cycles of insemination required for pregnancy to occur should also be considered when comparing the effectiveness of AID with fresh and frozen semen.


Pregnancy Rate Artificial Insemination Infertile Couple Cervical Mucus Fertility Potential 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Sherman, J.K. Clinical use of frozen human semen.TransplantProc. (Suppl. 1), 8:165, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Behrman, S.J. Techniques of artificial insemination. In : S.J. Behrman and R.W. Kistner, eds.,Progress in Infertility,1stEdition, Little, Brown and Co., Boston, p. 717, 1968.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Strickler, R.C., Keller, D.W. and Warren, J.C. Artificial insemination with fresh donor semen.N. Engl. J. Med. 293:848, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chong, A.P. and Taymor, M.L. Sixteen years experience with therapeutic donor insemination.Fertil Steril., 26:791, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Koren, Z. and Lieberman, R. Fifteen years experience with artificial insemination.Int. J. Fert. 21:119, 1976.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Friedman, S. Artificial donor insemination with frozen human semen.Fertil. Steril., 28:1230, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ansbacher, R. Artificial insemination with frozen spermatozoa.Fertil. Steril., 29:375, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Behrman, S.J. and Sawada, Y. Heterologous and homologous inseminations with human semen frozen and stored in a liquid nitrogen refrigerator.Fertil. Steril., 17:457, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Steinberger, E. and Smith, K.D. Artificial insemination with fresh or frozen semen. A comparative Study.J.A.M.A., 223:778, 1973.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sulewski, J.M., Eisenberg, F. and Stenger, V.G. A longitudinal analysis of artificial insemination with donor semen.Fertil.Steril., 29:527, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Perloff, W.H. and Steinberger, E.In vivosurvival of spermatozoa in cervical mucus.Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 88:439, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Smith, K.D., Rodriguez-Rigau, L.J. and Steinberger, E. The infertile couple : working with them together. In : A.T.K. Cockett and R.L. Urry, eds., Male Infertility Workup,Treatment and Research. Grune and Stratton, New York, p.211, 1977.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Smith, K.D., Rodriguez-Rigau, L.J. and Steinberger, E. Relation between indices of semen analysis and pregnancy rates in infertile couples.Fertil. Steril., 28:1314, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Steinberger, E., Smith, K.D., Tcholakian, R.K. and Rodriguez-Rigau, L.J. Testosterone levels in female partners of infertile couples.Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 133:133, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Steinberger, E. and Perloff, W.H. Preliminary experience with a human sperm bank.Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 92:577, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Smith, K.D. and Steinberger, E. Survival of spermatozoa in a human sperm bank. Effects of long-term storage in liquid nitrogen.J.A.M.A., 223:774, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    The American Fertility Society.Artificial Insemination : An accepted Medical Technique. The American Fertility Society, Birmingham, Alabama, 1978.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Beck, W.W. A critical look at the legal, ethical and technical aspects of artificial insemination.Fertil. Steril., 27:1, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bunge, R.G. and Sherman, J.K. Fertilizing capacity of frozen human spermatozoa.Nature, London, 172:767, 1953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Iizuka R. and Sawada, Y. Successful inseminations with frozen human semen.Jap. J. Fertil. Steril., 3:4, 1958.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Perloff, W.H., Steinberger, E. and Sherman, J.K. Conceptions with human spermatozoa frozen by the nitrogen vapor technique.Fertil. Steril. 15:501, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kleegman, S., Amelar, R.D., Sherman, J.K., Hirschhorn, K. and Pilpel, H. Artificial donor insemination (roundtable).Med.Aspects. Human Sexuality., 4:85, 1970.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emil Steinberger
    • 1
  • Luis J. Rodriguez-Rigau
    • 1
  • Keith D. Smith
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Reproductive Medicine and BiologyUniversity of Texas Medical School at HoustonHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations