Quantitative Ultrastructural Modifications in Human Spermatozoa after Freezing

  • Denise Escalier
  • Jean-Pierre Bisson


Observations of decreased spermatozoa motility after freezing have motivated investigations attempting to identify ultrastructural cell damage from this procedure. As a result, lesions to the plasma membrane, acrosome and certain flagellar elements have been documented.1,7,10,12 However, these studies have been performed on spermatozoa frozen in cryoprotector media. Therefore, their findings are the result of a dual process: Cryo-aggression and cryo-protection. A better understanding of these two processes as well as the effect of the cryoprotector medium alone without freezing is needed and may lead to improved efficacy of semen cryopreservation. Of the studies that have approached the problem in this way,8,9 none have quantified their results.


Seminal Plasma Human Spermatozoon External Membrane Fibrous Sheath Coarse Fiber 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Denise Escalier
    • 1
  • Jean-Pierre Bisson
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre d’Etude et de Conservation du Sperme at Paris-BicêtreKremlin-BicêtreFrance

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