Advertisement

The Tantalus Ratio

A scaffolding for an ontological personality theory
  • S. Giora Shoham

Abstract

The raison d’être for another personality theory seems to be dubious, if we consider the multitudes of the existing ones which very often differ from one another more semantically than intrinsically. Also, there is an amazing constancy in the description of the core characteristics of the personality in different ages and by different disciplines, the main variant being the differences in language. This is even more apparent in the definition of personality itself. And yet, our present personality theory may be vindicated on three grounds:
  • It structures some established theoretical statements into an entirely new frame of reference.

  • It introduces a whole range of ontological vectors and variables never before used in a similar context by personologists.

  • It presents new stages of personality development and resultant cycles of intra-psychic and inter-personal interaction.

Keywords

Achievement Motive Personality Theory Social Involvement Separate Identity Family Fold 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    Shoham, S. Giora, Salvation Through the Gutters, in press.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schachtel, Ernest G., Metamorphosis, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1963, p. 32.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Greenacre, D., Trauma, Growth and Personality, New York: W. W. Norton, 1952.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Erikson, E., “The Problem of Identity”, Journal of Amer. Psych, Ass. 1956, 4, pp. 56–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    See W. R. D. Fairbairn, Psychoanalytic Studies of the Personality, Tavistock Pubs., London, 1952, p. 103–108.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Freud, S., Beyond the Pleasure Principle. London: International Psychoanalytical Press, 1922.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rank, O., The Trauma of Birth, London, 1929, reprinted, N.Y.: Robert Bruner 1952.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Angyal., A., “A Theoretical Model for Personality Studies”, J. Personality 1951, pp. 131–142.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Angyal., A., Neurosis and Treatment: A Holistic Theory, New York: J. Wiley 1965 p. 29.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lévy-Bruhl, L., La mentalité primitive, Paris: Press Universitaire de France.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Eliade, M., Myth and Reality, New York: Harper & Row, 1968, p. 78.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Eliade, M., Myth and Reality, New York: Harper & Row, 1968Ibid., pp. 78, 89, 125.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Eliade, M., The Myth of the Eternal Return, N.Y.: Bollingen Series XLVI (foreword).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schachtel, Ernest G., Metamorphosis, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1963, p. 32op. cit.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sullivan, H. S. Conceptions of Modern Psychiatry, Washington, D.C.: William Allanson White Psychiatric Foundation, 1947, pp. 10–21.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Shoham, S. Giora, Salvation Through the Gutters, in press.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    ibid, part 1.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
  19. 19.
    Maddi, S. R., Personality Theories: A Comparative Analysis, Revised Ed., Homeland, Illinois, The Dorsey Press; 1972, p. 51.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Camus, A., The Myth of Sisyphus, New York, Vintage Books: 1961, pp. 3 et seq.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shoham, S. Giora, Salvation Through the Gutters, in press.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    See Robert Graves, The Greek Myths, Penguin Books, 1955 Vol. 2 p. 26.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
  24. 24.
    Freud, S.,Beyond the Pleasure Principle. London: International Psychoanalytical Press, 1922 op. cit. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Jung, Carl G., “The Soul and Death”, in H. Feifel: The Meaning of Death, McGraw-Hill, 1965, p. 6.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Berachot 17a.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shabbat 152b.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    See S. Giora Shoham, Salvation Through the Gutters, op. cit.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Freud, S., Interpretation of Dreams. Standard Ed. Hogarth Press, 1953, p. 511.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jung, C.G. On Psychic Energy, Collected Works, Princeton U.P.: Princeton, N.J., 1960, Vol. 8.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    On Jung’s Mandala Symbolism and the striving for unity see: C. G. Jung, The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, Collected Works. Princeton U.P.: Princeton, N.J., 1960, Vol. 9.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    See Munroe, R., Schools of Psychoanalytic Thought, N.Y.: Holt, 1955, p. 360.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Heidegger, M., Sein und Zeit, Halle: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 1927, p. 187.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ecclesiastes 3:10–11.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    See S. Giora Shoham: Salvation Through the Gutters, op. cit. part 1.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Schachtel, E. G., op. cit. p. 60.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bowlby, J., Attachment, Penguin Books, 1972, chapter 11.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    This is the stand adhered to, inter alia, by Sullivan. See R. Munroe, Schools of Psychoanalytic Thought, N.Y.: Holt 1955, p. 360.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    See J. Piaget and B. Infelders, The Psychology of the Child, New York: Basic Books 1969, pp. 25, et seq.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    See W. R. D. Fairbairn, Psychoanalytic Studies of the Personality, London: Tavistock Publications, Routledge & Kegan Paul, part 1.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Dynes, R. R., et al, “Level of Aspiration: Some Aspects of Family Experience as a Variable”, A Sociol. Rev. XXI (April 1956) pp. 212–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    DeGrazia, S., The Political Community, Chicago: U. of Chicago Press 1948, p. 59.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Mack, R. A., et al, “The Protestant Ethic, Level of Aspiration and Social Mobility: An Empirical Test”, Am. Sociol. Rev. XXI (June, 1956) pp. 255–300. See also P. C. McClelland, The Achieving Society, Princeton, N.J.: van Nostrand 1961.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Guttman, L., The Nonmetric Breakthrough for the Behavioral Sciences, The Proceedings of the Second National Conference on Data Processing, Jan. 5–6, 1966, Rehovoth, Israel.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    See R. A. Cloward and L. E. Ohlin, Delinquency and Opportunity. The Free Press of Glencoe, 1961, p. 95.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    For a review of the literature on anomie and alienation see: S. Giora Shoham, Society and the Absurd, Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1974.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    For an extensive analysis of accidia as a mode of social alienation see: S. Giora Shoham, Society and the Absurd, op. cit., chapter 1.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Camus, A., The Fall, New York: Vintage Books, 1956, p. 133.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Camus, A., The Myth of Sisyphus, New York: Vintage Books, 1961, p. 91.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© H. E. Stenfert Kroese bv, Leiden 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Giora Shoham
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Tel-AvivIsrael

Personalised recommendations