Advertisement

Identification and Documentation of Urinary Tract Infection

  • Barry J. Materson

Abstract

Urinary tract infection is one of the most common problems of both pediatric and adult practice. It may either be overt (symptomatic) or covert (asymptomatic). Overt infections may either be self-evident or present with signs and symptoms more typical of other common diseases. Covert infections are discovered either by serendipity or by screening of asymptomatic populations. A working knowledge of populations at risk greatly facilitates diagnostic effort and planning for intelligent screening methods.

Keywords

Urinary Tract Infection Urinary Infection Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection Ureteral Catheterization Urethral Syndrome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Bergstrom, T., Larson, H., Lincoln, K. et al.: Studies of urinary tract infections in infancy and childhood. XII. Eighty consecutive cases with neonatal infection. J. Pediat. 80: 858, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kunin, C.M.: Detection, Prevention and Management of Urinary Tract Infections, 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, 1974.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Stamey, T.A.: Urinary Infections. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1972.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Boineau, F.G. and Levy, J.E.: Urinary tract infection in children — an overview. Pediat. Ann. 4: 515, 1975.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kass, E.H.: Bacteriuria and pyelonephritis of pregnancy. Arch. Int. Med. 105: 194, 1960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Marshall, V.F.: Management of the child with urinary infection. New York J. Med. 64: 733, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Spence, H.M., Murphy, J.J., McGovern, J.H. et al.: Urinary tract infections in infants and children. J. Urol. 91: 623, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Harrow, B.R., Sloane, J.A. and Witus, W.S.: A critical examination of bladder neck obstruction in children. J. Urol. 98: 613, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shopfner, C.E.: Roentgenological evaluation of bladder neck obstruction. Amer. J. Roentgenol. 100: 162, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hodson, J., Maling, T.M.J., McManamon, P.J. and Lewis, M.G.: Reflux nephropathy. Kidney Int. 8: S-50, 1975.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rolleston, G.L., Shannon, F.T. and Utley, W.L.F.: Follow-up of vesicoureteric reflux in the newborn. Kidney Int. 8: S-59, 1975.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Smellie, J., Edwards, D., Hunter, N. et al.: Vesico-ureteric reflux and renal scarring. Kidney Int. 8: S-65, 1975.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Scott, J.E.S.: The role of surgery in the management of vesi-coureteric reflux. Kidney Int. 8: S-73, 1975.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hallett, R.J., Pead, L. and Maskell, R.: Urinary infection in boys: a three-year prospective study. Lancet 2: 1107, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kunin, C.M.: Epidemiology and natural history of urinary tract infection in school age children. Pediatr. Clin. N. Am. 18: 509, 1971.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Savage, D.C.L.: Natural history of covert bacteriuria in schoolgirls. Kidney Int. 8: S-90, 1975.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Freedman, L.R.: Natural history of urinary infection in adults. Kidney Int. 8: S-96, 1975.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shapiro, A.P., Sapira, J.D. and Scheib, E.: Development of bacteriuria in a hypersensitive population: A seven year follow-up study. Abs. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 4: 71, 1970.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kincaid-Smith, P., Fairley, K.F. and Heale, W.F.: Pyelonephritis as a cause of hypertension in man. In Onesti, G., Kim, K. and Moyer, J. (eds.): Hypertension: Mechanisms and Management. New York: Grune and Stratton, 1973, pp. 697–705.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Freeman, R.B., Smith, W. Mc., Richardson, J.A. et al.: Long-term therapy for chronic bacteriuria in man. Ann. Int. Med. 83: 133, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Alwall, N.: On controversial and open questions about the course and complications of non-obstructive urinary tract infection in adult women. Acta. Med. Scand. 203: 369, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Brumfitt, W.: The effects of bacteriuria in pregnancy on maternal and fetal health. Kidney Int. 8: S-113, 1975.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kunin, C.M.: Urinary tract infections in children. Hospital Practice 11: 91, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kunin, C.M.: Urinary tract infections in children (Editorial). Hospital Practice 12: 11, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    McCormick, M.C: The recognition of urinary tract infections in office-based pediatric practice: need for a systematic approach to the use of urine cultures in ambulatory care. Clin. Pediatr. 17: 713, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rapkin, R.H.: Urinary tract infection in childhood. Pediatr. 60: 508, 1977.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Arbus, G.S.: Urinary screening program to detect renal disease in preschool and kindergarden children. CMA Journal 116: 1141, 1977.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rees, D.L.P. and Farhoumand, N.: Psychiatric aspects of recurrent cystitis in women. Br. J. Urol. 49: 651, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hendry, W.F., Stanton, S.L. and Williams, D.I.: Recurrent urinary infections in girls: Effects of urethral dilatation. Br. J. Urol. 45: 72, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Splatt, A.J. and Weedon, D.: The urethral syndrome: Experience with the Richardson urethroplasty. Br. J. Urol. 49: 173, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Farrar, D.J., Green, N.A. and Ashken, M.H.: An evaluation of Otis urethrotomy in female patients with recurrent urinary tract infections. Br. J. Urol. 45: 610, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hinman, Jr., F.: Mechanisms for the entry of bacteria and the establishment of urinary tract infection in female children. J. Urol. 96: 546, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Halverstadt, D.B. and Leadbetter, G.W.: Internal urethrotomy and recurrent urinary tract infection in female children: I. Results in the management of infection. J. Urol. 100: 297, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Immergut, M., Culp, D. and Flocks, R.N.: The urethral caliber in normal female children. J. Urol. 97: 693, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Immergut, M.A. and Wahman, G.E.: The urethral caliber of female children with recurrent urinary tract infections. J. Urol. 99: 189, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Graham, J.B., King, L.R., Kropp, K.A. and Uehling, D.T.: The significance of distal urethral narrowing in young girls. J. Urol. 97: 1045, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Tanagho, E.A., Miller, E.R., Lyon, R.P. and Fisher, R.: Spastic striated external sphincter and urinary tract infection in girls. Br. J. Urol. 43: 69, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rees, D.L.P., Whitfield, H.N., Islam, A.K.M.S. et al.: Uro-dynamic findings in adult females with frequency and dysuria. Br. J. Urol. 47: 853, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kaplan, G.W., Sammons, T.A. and King, L.R.: A blind comparison of dilatation, urethrotomy and medication alone in the treatment of urinary tract infection in girls. J. Urol. 109: 917, 1973.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Meadow, R.: Munchausen syndrome by proxy: The hinterland of child abuse. Lancet 2: 343, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Du, J.N.H.: Colic as the sole symptom of urinary tract infection in infants. CMA Journal 115: 334, 1976.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Margileth, A.M., Pedreira, F.A., Hirschman, G.H. and Coleman, T.H.: Urinary tract bacterial infections: Office diagnosis and management. Peditr. Clin. N. Am. 23: 721, 1976.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Redman, J.F.: Keys to the diagnosis of occult urologic disease in children. J. Family Prac. 5: 337, 1977.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Horesh, A.J.: Allergy and recurrent urinary tract infections in childhood. II. Ann. Allergy 36: 174, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Unger, D.L.: Letter to the Editor. Ann. Allergy 36: 439, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Meadow, R.: Disorders of micturition, abnormalities of urine, and urinary tract infection. Br. Med. J. 1: 1200, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Fairley, K.F., Becker, G.J., Butler, H.M. et al.: Diagnosis in the difficult case. Kidney Int. 8: S-12, 1975.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Todd, J.K.: Urinary tract infections in children and adolescents. Postgrad. Med. 60: 225, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Burger, L.M. and Wolcott, B.W.: A clinical algorithm for urinary tract symptoms. Military Med. 143: 476, 1978.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Komaroff, A.L., Pass, T.M., McCue, J.D. et al.: Management strategies for urinary and vaginal infections. Arch. Int. Med. 138: 1069, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Rees, D.L.P.: Urinary tract infection. Clinics in Obst. Gyn. 5: 169, 1978.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Sickles, E.G., Greene, W.H. and Wiernik, P.H.: Clinical presentation of infection in granulocytopenic patients. Arch. Int. Med. 135: 715, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Musher, D.M., Thorsteinsson, S.B. and Airola II, V.M.: Quantitative urinalysis: diagnosing urinary tract infection in men. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 236: 2069, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kass, E.H.: Asymptomatic infection of the urinary tract. Trans. Assoc. Am. Phys. 69: 56, 1956.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Lewis, J.F. and Alexander, J.: Microscopy of stained urine smears to determine the need for quantitative culture. J. Clin. Microbiol. 4: 372, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Fang, L.S.T., Tolkoff-Rubin, N.E. and Rubin, R.H.: Localization and management of urinary tract infection. Ann. Rev. Med. 225, 1979.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Whitworth, J.A. and Fairley, K.F.: Tests for localization of urinary infections. N. Engl. J. Med. 299: 312, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Stamey, T.A., Govan, D.E. and Palmer, J.M.: The localization and treatment of urinary tract infections: The role of bactericidal urine levels as opposed to serum levels. Med. 44: 1, 1965.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Neter, E.: Estimation of Escherichia coli antibodies in urinary tract infection: a review and perspective. Kid. Int. 8: S-23, 1975.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Darwish, M.E., Staubitz, W.J., Scheuller, E.F. et al.: Antibody response of dogs to experimental infection of bladder pouch. Invest. Urol. 6: 66, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Turck, M., Ronald, A.R. and Petersdorf, R.G.: Relapse and reinfection in chronic bacteriuria: II. The correlation between site of infection and problem of recurrence in chronic bacteriuria. N. Engl. J. Med. 278: 422, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ronald, A.R., Cutler, R.E. and Turck, M.: Effect of bacteriuria on renal concentrating mechanisms. Ann. Int. Med. 70: 723, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Fairley, K.F., Bond, A.G., Brown, R.B. and Habersberger, P.: Simple test to determine the site of urinary-tract infection, Lancet 2: 427, 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Fairley, K.F., Carson, N.E., Gutch, R.C. et al.: Site of infection in acute urinary-tract infection in general practice. Lancet 2: 615, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Thomas, V., Shelokov, A. and Forland, M.: Antibody-coated bacteria in the urine and the site of urinary-tract infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 290: 588, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Thomas, V.L., Forland, M. and Shelokov, A.: Antibody-coated bacteria in urinary tract infection. Kid. Int. 8: S-20, 1975.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Jones, S.R.: Prostatitis as a cause of antibody-coated bacteria in the urine. N. Engl. J. Med. 291: 365, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Jones, S.R., Smith, J.W. and Sanford, J.P.: Localization of urinary tract infections by detection of antibody-coated bacteria in urine sediment. N. Engl. J. Med. 290: 591, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Jones, S.R.: Antibody-coated bacteria in urine. N. Engl. J. Med. 295: 1380, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Janson, K.L. and Roberts, J.A.: Non-invasive localization of urinary tract infection. J. Urol. 117: 624, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Pujol, A., Linares, F., Muñoz, J. et al.: A new method for detection and localization of urinary infection; the fluorescence antibody test. Urol. Int. 31: 501, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Pujol, A., Linares, F., Muñoz, J. et al.: A new method for detection and localization of urinary infection: the fluorescence antibody test. Eur. Urol. 2: 145, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Schaberg, D.R., Haley, R.W., Terry, P.M. and McGowan, Jr., J.E.: Reproducibility of interpretation of the test for antibody-coated bacteria in urinary sediment. J. Clin. Microbiol. 6: 359, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Jones, S.R. and Johnson, J.: Further evaluation of the test for detection of antibody-coated bacteria in the urine sediment. J. Clin. Microbiol. 5: 510, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Harding, G.K.M., Marrie, T.J., Ronald, A.R. et al.: Urinary tract infection localization in women. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 240: 1147, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Rumans, L.W. and Vosti, K.L.: The relationship of antibody-coated bacteria to clinical syndromes: as found in unselected populations with bacteriuria. Arch. Int. Med. 138: 1077, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Rumans, L.W. and Vosti, K.L.: Antibody-coated bacteria. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 237: 531, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Thorley, J.D., Barbin, G.K. and Reinarz, J.A.: The prevalence of antibody-coated bacteria in the urine. Am. J. Med. Sci. 275: 75, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Forland, M., Thomas, V. and Shelokov, A.: Urinary tract infections in patients with diabetes mellitus: Studies on antibody coating of bacteria. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 238: 1924, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Keren, D.F., Nightingale, S.D., Hamilton, C.L. et al.: Antibody-coating bacteria as an indicator of the site of urinary tract infection in renal transplant recipients receiving immunosuppressive agents. Am. J. Med. 63: 855, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Riedasch, G., Ritz, E., Dreikorn, K. and Andrassy, K.: Antibody coating of urinary bacteria in transplanted patients. Nephron 20: 267, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Casanova, A., Linares, J., Edo, A. et al.: Antibody-coated bacteria and pregnancy. Eur. Urol. 4: 103, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Braude, R. and Block, C.: Proteinuria and antibody-coated bacteria in the urine. N. Engl. J. Med. 297: 617, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Forsum, U., Fritjofsson, A., Frodin, L. et al.: A clinical evaluation of a test for antibody-coated bacteria in the urine. Scand. J. Urol. Nephrol. 12: 45, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Hellerstein, S., Kennedy, E., Nussbaum, L. and Rice, K.: Localization of the site of urinary tract infections by means of antibody-coated bacteria in the urinary sediments. J. Pediatr. 92: 188, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Meares, E.M. and Stamey, T.A.: Bacteriologic localization patterns in bacterial prostatitis and urethritis. Invest. Urol. 5: 492, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Hurwitz, S.R., Kessler, W.O., Alazraki, N.P. and Ashburn, W.L.: Gallium-67 imaging to localize urinary-tract infections. Br. J. Radiol. 49: 156, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Gillenwater, J.Y.: Diagnosis of urinary tract infection: appraisal of diagnostic procedures. Kid. Int. 8: S-3, 1975.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Bank, N. and Bailine, S.H.: Urinary beta-glucuronidase activity in patients with urinary tract infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 272: 70, 1965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Harris, R.E., Thomas, V.L., Underwood, J.M. and Gandot, F.: A comparison of two indirect methods for localizing the site of urinary tract infection: beta glucuronidase levels and the presence of antibody-coated bacteria. Am. J. Obstet. Gyn. 131: 647, 1978.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Skelton, I.J., Hogan, M.M., Stokes, B. and Hurst, J.A.: Urinary tract infections in childhood: the place of the nitrite test. Med. J. Aust. 1: 882, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Scherstén, B. and Fritz, H.: Subnormal levels of glucose in urine. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 201: 949, 1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Scherstén, B., Dahlqvist, A., Fritz, H. et al.: Screening for bacteriuria with a test paoer for glucose. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 204: 205, 1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Simmons, W.A. and Williams, J.D.: A simple test for bacteriuria. Lancet 1: 1377, 1962.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Giler, S., Henig, E.F., Urca, I. et al.: Urine xanthine oxidase activity in urinary tract infection. J. Clin. Path. 31: 444, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Lamb, V.A., Dalton, H.P. and Wilkins, J.R.: Electrochemical method for the early detection of urinary tract infections. Am. J. Clin. Path. 66: 91, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Hayward, N.J. and Jeavons, T.H.: Assessment of technique for rapid detection of Escherichia coli and Proteus species in urine by head-space gas-liquid chromatography. J. Clin. Microbiol. 6: 202, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Adelman, R.D.: The dipslide in diagnosis of urinary tract infections. J. Family Prac. 3: 647, 1976.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Asscher, A.W., Davis, R.H. and Mackenzie, R.: Dipslide diagnosis of urinary-tract infection. Lancet 2: 202, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Duerden, B.I. and Moyes, A.: Comparison of laboratory methods in the diagnosis of urinary tract infection. J. Clin. Path. 29: 286, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    McAllister, T.A.: The day of the dipslide. Nephron 11: 123, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Martin, M.J. and McGuckin, M.B.: Evaluation of a dipslide in a university outpatient service. J. Urol. 120: 193, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Litvak, A.S., Eadie, E.B. and McRoberts, J.W.: A clinical evaluation of a screening device (Microstix) for urinary tract infections. So. Med. J. 69: 1418, 1976.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Kunin, C.M., DeGroot, J.E., Uehling, D. and Ramgopal, V.: Detection of urinary tract infections in 3 to 5 year old girls by mothers using a nitrite indicator strip. Pediatr. 57: 829, 1976.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Todd, J.K.: Home follow-up of urinary tract infection: comparison of two non-culture techniques. Am. J. Dis. Child. 131: 860, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Collacott, R.A.: Urinary infection in a remote practice. Practitioner 218: 123, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Friedland, G.W.: Recurrent urinary tract infections in infants and children. Radiol. Clin. N. Am. 15: 19, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Brock, M., Feneley, R.C.L. and Davies, E.R.: Renography as a prognostic index of urinary tract problems in childhood. Br. J. Urol. 49: 261, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Kass, E.H.: Bacteriuria and diagnosis of infection of the urinary tract. Arch. Int. Med. 100: 709, 1957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Slosky, D.A. and Todd, J.K.: Diagnosis of urinary tract infection: the interpretation of colony counts. Clin. Pediatr. 16: 698, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Gross, P.A., Harkavy, L.M., Borden, G.E. and Kerstein, M.: Positive Foley catheter tip cultures: fact or fancy? J. Am. Med. Assoc. 228: 72, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Gross, P.A., Harkavy, L.M., Borden, G.E. and Kerstein, M.: Foley tip cultures are of no value. Geriatrics 29: 111, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Uehling, D.T. and Hasham, A.I.: Significance of catheter tip cultures. Invest. Urol. 15: 57, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Burleson, R.L., Brennan, A.M. and Scruggs, B.G.: Foley catheter tip cultures: a valuable diagnostic aid in the immunosup-pressed patient. Am. J. Surg. 133: 723, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry J. Materson
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Dept. Med.Univ. Miami Sch. Med.MiamiUSA
  2. 2.Med. Serv.Miami Veterans Adm. Hosp.MiamiUSA

Personalised recommendations