Advertisement

DNA Binding Proteins and Their Roles in Controlling Tissue Specific Gene Expression and Responses to Second Messengers

  • Michael Karin
  • Mordechai Bodner
  • Robert Chiu
  • Peter Angel
  • David Wu
  • Sharon Dana
  • Ed Satuloff
  • Masayoshi Imagawa
Part of the Biochemical Endocrinology book series (BIOEND)

Abstract

Transcriptional control is extensively used by mammalian cells to modulate the level of gene expression in response to various environmental, hormonal, developmental and nutritional signals. By modulating the rate of transcription of various genes, the cell can adapt to new nutritional requirements and adverse environmental conditions. The turning on and off of specific genes allows the cell to change its phenotype, assume new functions and progress along its developmental pathway. While the biosynthesis of any RNA molecule includes several distinct steps such as initiation, elongation and termination, in almost all cases transcriptional control occurs at the initiation step. Like other eukaryotes, mammalian cells contain three different RNA polymerases, usually abbreviated as Pol I, Pol II and Pol III. Each of these RNA polymerases is assigned to transcribe a different class of RNA molecules: e.g. Pol I is responsible for transcription of the genes coding for the 28S and 18S ribosomal RNAs; Pol II transcribes protein coding genes and Pol III is used for transcription of 5S ribosomal RNA, tRNAs, and several other small RNA species such as the small nuclear RNAs (Hansen and Sharp 1987; Heintz and Roeder 1982; Manley 1983). We will limit our discussion to the control of transcription of protein coding genes by Pol II.

Keywords

Enhancer Element Glucocorticoid Responsive Element Phorbol Ester Tumor Promoter SV40 Enhancer Human Growth Hormone Gene 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Angel P, Imagawa M, Chiu R, Stein B, Imbra RJ, Rahmsdorf HJ, Jonat C., Herrlich P, Karin M. Phorbol ester-inducible genes contain a common cis element recognized by a TPA-modulated trans-acting factor. Cell 1987; 49:729–739.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bodner M, Karin M. A pituitary-specific trans-acting factor can stimulate transcription from the growth hormone promoter is extracts of nonexpressing cells. Cell 1987; 50:267–275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bohmann D, Keller W, Dale T, Scholer HR, Tebb G, Mattaj IW. A transcription factor which binds to the enhancer of SV40, immunoglobulin heavy chain and U2 SNRNA genes. Nature 1987; 325:268–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Breathnach R, Chambon P. Organization and expression of eucaryotic split genes coding for proteins. Ann Rev Biochem 1981; 50:349–384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Briggs MR, Kadonaga JT, Bell SP, Tjian R. Purification and biochemical characterization of the promoter-specific transcription factor, Spl. Science 1986; 234:47–52.Google Scholar
  6. Carthew RW, Chodosh LA, Sharp PA. An RNA polymerase II transcription factor binds to an upstream element in the adenovirus major late promoter. Cell 1985; 43:439–448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chiu R, Imagawa M, Imbra RJ, Bockoven JR, Karin M. Multiple cis-and trans-acting elements mediate the transcriptional response to phorbol esters. Nature 1987; 329:648–651.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dynan W, Tjian R. Control of eukaryotic mRNA synthesis by sequence-specific DNA binding proteins. Nature 1985; 316:774–778.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hansen U, Sharp PA. Transcription by RNA polymerase II. In Comprehensive Virology, Vol 19, H. Fraenkel-Conrat and R.R. Wagner, eds. New York: Plenum Press, pp. 65–97, 1984.Google Scholar
  10. Haslinger A, Karin M. Upstream promoter element of the human metallothionein-IIA gene can act like an enhancer element. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1985; 82:8572–8576.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hawley DK, Roeder RG. Functional steps in transcription initiation and reinitiation from the major late promoter in a HeLa nuclear extract. J Biol Chem 1987; 262:3452–3461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Heintz N, Roeder RG. Transcription of eukaryotic genes in soluble cell-free systems. In Genetic Engineering 4, JK Setlow and A Hollacumber, eds. New York: Plenum Press, pp. 57–89, 1982.Google Scholar
  13. Herr W, Clarke J. The SV40 enhancer is composed of multiple functional elements that can compensate for one another. Cell 1986; 45:461–470.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Imagawa, M., Chiu, R., Karin, M. Transcription factor AP-2 mediates induction by two different signal-transduction pathways: protein kinase C and cAMP. Cell 1987, 51:251–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Imbra RJ, Karin M. Phorbol ester induces the transcriptional stimulatory activity of the SV40 enhancer. Nature 1986; 323:555–558.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Imbra RJ, Karin M. Metallothionein gene expression of regulated by serum factors and activators of protein kinase C. Mol Cell Biol 1987; 7:1358–1363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Ivarie RD, Schater BS, O’Farrell PH. The level of expression of the rat growth hormone gene in liver tumor cells is at least eight orders of magnitude less than that in anterior pituitary cells. Mol. Cell. Biol. 1983; 3:460–1467.Google Scholar
  18. Israel A, Kimura A, Fournier A, Fellous M, Kourilsky P. Interferon response sequence potentiates activity of an enhancer in the promoter region of a mouse H-2 gene. Nature 1986; 322:743–746.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Janzen HM, Strahle U, Gloss B, Stewart F, Schmid W, Boshart M, Miksicek R and Schutz G. Cooperativity of glucocorticoid response elements located far upstream of the tyrosine aminotransferase gene. Cell 1987; 49:29–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jones KA, Yamamoto KR, Tjian R. Two distinct transcription factors bind to the HSV thymidine kinase promoter in vitro. Cell 1985, 42:559–572.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kadonaga JT, Tjian R. Affinity purification of sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1986; 83:5889–5893.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Karin M. Metallothioneins: proteins in search of function. Cell 1985; 41:9–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Karin M, Haslinger A, Holtgreve H, Cathala G, Salter E, Baxter JD. Activation of a heterologous promoter in response to dexamethasone and cadmium by metallothionein gene 5’-flanking DNA. Cell 1984a; 36:371–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Karin M, Haslinger A, Holtgreve H, Richards RI, Krauter P, Westphal HM, Beato M. Characterization of DNA sequences through which cadmium and glucocorticoid hormones induce human metallothionein-IIA gene. Nature 1984b; 308:513–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Karin M, Haslinger A, Heguy A, Dietlin T, Cooke T. Metal-responsive elements act as positive modulators of human metallothionein-IIA enhancer activity. Mol Cell Biol 1987; 7:606–613.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Lee W, Haslinger A, Karin M, Tjian R. Two factors that bind and activate the human metallothionein-IIA gene in vitro also interact with the SV40 promoter and enhancer region. Nature 1987a; 325:368–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lee W, Mitchell P, Tjian R. Purified transcription factor AP-1 interacts with TPA-inducible enhancer elements. Cell 1987b; 49:741–752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lefevre C., Imagawa M, Dana S, Grindlay J, Bodner M, Karin M. Tissuespecific expression of the human growth hormone gene is conferred in part by the binding of a specific trans-acting factor. EMBO J 1987; 6:971–981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Manley, JL. Analysis of the expression of genes encoding animal mRNA by in vitro techniques. Prog Nucl Acid Res Mol Biol 1983; 30:195–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. McKnight S, Tjian R. Transcriptional selectivity of viral genes in mammalian cells. Cell 1986; 46:795–805.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mitchell PJ, Wang C., Tjian R. Positive and negative regulation of transcription in vitro; enhancer-binding protein AP-2 is inhibited by V40 T antigen. Cell 1987; 50:847–861.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Montminy MR, Bilezikjian LM. Binding of a nuclear protein to the cyclic AMP response element of the somatostatin gene. Nature 1987; 328:175–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Moore DD, Conkling MA, Goodman HM. Human growth hormone: A multigene family cell. 1982; 29:285–286.Google Scholar
  34. Ondek B, Shepard A, Herr W. Discrete elements within the SV40 enhancer region display different cell-specific activities. EMBO J 1987; 6:1017–1025.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Ptashne M. Gene regulation by proteins acting nearby and at a distance. Nature 1986; 322:697–701.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Reinberg D, Horikoshi M, Roeder RG. Factors involved in specific transcription in mammalian RNA polymerase II. J Biol Chem 1987; 262:3322–3330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Sawadogo M, Roeder RG. Interaction of a gene-specific transcription factor with the adenovirus major late promoter upstream of the TATA box region. Cell 1985; 43:165–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Schirm S, Jiricny J, Schaffner W. The SV40 enhancer can be dissected into multiple segments, each with a different cell type specificity. Genes Dev 1987; 1:65–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Scholer H, Haslinger A, Heguy A, Holtgreve H, Karin M. In vivo competition between a metallothionein regulatory element and the SV40 enhancer. Science 1986; 232:76–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Serfling E, Jasin M, Schaffner W. Enhancers and eukaryotic gene transcription. Trends Genet 1985; 1:224–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Seeburg PH. The human growth hormone gene family: Nucleotide sequences show recent divergence and predict a new polypeptide hormone. DNA 1982; 1:239–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Slater EP, Cato ACB, Karin M, Baxter D, Beato M. Progesterone induction of metallothionein-IIA gene expression. Mol. Endocrin. 1987; in press.Google Scholar
  43. Staudt LM, Singh H, Sen R, Wirth T, Sharp PA, Baltimore D. A lymphoidspecific protein binding to the octamer motif of immunoglobulin genes. Nature 1986; 323:640–643.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Tsai SY, Sagami I, Wang H, Tsai M, O’Malley BW. Interactions between a DNA-binding transcription factor (COUP) and a non-DNA binding factor (S300-II). Cell 1987; 50:701–709.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Topol J, Ruden DM, Parker CS. Sequences required for in vitro transcriptional activation of a Drosophila hsp 70 gene. Cell 1985; 42:527–537.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Trepel B, Colamonici OR, Kelley K, Schwab G, Watt RA, Sausville EA, Jaffe ES and Neckers LM. Transcriptional activation of c-myc and the transferrin receptor in dibutyryl cyclic AMP-treated Hl-60 cells. Mol. Cell. Biol. 1987; 2644–648.Google Scholar
  47. Walker MD, Edlund T, Boulet AM, Rutter WJ. Cell-specific expression controlled by the 5’ flanking region of insulin and chymotrypsin genes. Nature 1983; 300:557–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wildeman AG, Sassone-Corsi P, Grundstrom T, Zenke M, Chambon P. Stimulation of in vitro transcription from the SV40 early promoter by the nhancer involves a specific transacting factor. EMBO J 1984; 3:3129–3133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Zenke M, Grundstrom T, Mattes H, Wintzerith M, Schatz C., Wildeman AG, Chambon P. Multiple sequence motifs are involved in SV40 enhancer function. EMBO J 1986; 5:387–397.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Karin
    • 1
  • Mordechai Bodner
    • 1
  • Robert Chiu
    • 1
  • Peter Angel
    • 1
  • David Wu
    • 1
  • Sharon Dana
    • 1
  • Ed Satuloff
    • 1
  • Masayoshi Imagawa
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology, M-036, School of Medicine and Center for Molecular GeneticsUniversity of CaliforniaSan Diego La JollaUSA

Personalised recommendations