The Graphic Analysis of Data

  • Barry S. Parsonson
  • Donald M. Baer
Part of the Applied Clinical Psychology book series (NSSB)


Graphic data presentation, visual data analysis, and single-subject designs have each achieved a unique prominence in the experimental and applied analysis of behavior. In combination, they have allowed the direct, responsive, and individualized behavior-control procedures that characterize the functional analysis of behavior as no other strategy could have done (Baer, 1977; Michael, 1974; Skinner, 1956).


Graphic Analysis Behavior Analysis Graphic Data Data Path Applied Behavior Analysis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Baer, D. M. (1977). Perhaps it would be better not to know everything. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10, 167–172.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baer, D. M., & Parsonson, B. S. (1981). Applied changes from steady state: Still a problem in the visual analysis of data. In C. M. Bradshaw, E. Szabadi, & C. F. Lowe (Eds.), Quantification of steady-state operant behaviour (pp. 273–285). Amsterdam: Elsevier/ North Holland Biomedical Press.Google Scholar
  3. Baer, D. M., & Wolf, M. M. (1970). The entry into natural communities of reinforcement. In R. Ulrich, T. Stachnik, and J. Mabry (Eds.), Control of human behavior (Vol. 2): From cure to prevention (pp. 319–324). Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.Google Scholar
  4. Baer, D. M., Wolf, M. M., & Risley, T. R. (1968). Some current dimensions of applied behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1, 91–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bakan, D. (1967). On method: Toward a reconstruction of psychological investigation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  6. Craighead, W. E., Kazdin, A. E., & Mahoney, M. J. (1976). Behavior modification: Principles, issues, and applications. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  7. De Prospero, A., & Cohen, S. (1979). Inconsistent visual analysis of intra-subject data. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 12, 573–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Edgington, E. S. (1980). Random assignment and statistical tests for one-subject experiments. Behavioral Assessment, 2, 19–28.Google Scholar
  9. Edgington, E. S. (1982). Non-parametric tests for single-subject multiple schedule experiments. Behavioral Assessment, 4, 83–91.Google Scholar
  10. Glass, G. V., Willson, V. L., & Gottman, J. M. (1975). Design and analysis of time-series experiments. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado Press.Google Scholar
  11. Gross, A. M., & Drabman, R. S. (1981). Behavioral contrast and behavior therapy. Behavior Therapy, 12, 231–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gottman, J. M. (1981). Time-series analysis: A comprehensive introduction for social scientists. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Gottman, J. M., & Glass, G. V. (1978). Analysis of interrupted time-series experiments. In T. R. Kratochwill (Ed.), Single-subject research: Strategies for evaluating change (pp. 197–235). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  14. Hartmann, D. P., Gottman, J. M., Jones, R. R., Gardner, W., Kazdin, A. E., & Vaught, R. (1980). Interrupted time-series analysis and its application to behavioral data. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 13, 543–559.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hinson, J. M., & Staddon, J. E. R. (1978). Behavioral competition: A mechanism for schedule interactions. Science, 202, 432–434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hugdahl, K., & Ost, L. G. (1981). On the difference between statistical and clinical significance. Behavioral Assessment, 3, 289–295.Google Scholar
  17. Jones, R. R., Weinrott, M. R., & Vaught, R. S. (1978). Effects of serial dependency on the agreement between visual and statistical inference. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 11, 277–283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kazdin, A. E. (1976). Statistical analyses for single-case experimental designs. In M. Hersen & D. H. Barlow (Eds.), Single-case experimental designs: Strategies for studying behavior change (pp. 265–316). Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  19. Kazdin, A. E. (1977). Assessing the clinical or applied importance of behavior change through social validation. Behavior Modification, 1, 427–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kratochwill, T. R. (Ed.). (1978). Single-subject research: Strategies for evaluating change. New York: Academic press.Google Scholar
  21. Kratochwill, T. R., & Brody, G. H. (1978). Single-subject designs: A perspective on the controversy over employing statistical inference and implications for research and training in behavior modification. Behavior Modification, 2, 291–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kratochwill, T. R., & Levin, J. R. (1980). On the applicability of various data analysis procedures to the simultaneous and alternating treatment designs in behavior therapy research. Behavioral Assessment, 2, 353–360.Google Scholar
  23. Ledolter, J. (1983). The study of time-series data. [Review]. Contemporary Psychology, 28(2), 157–158.Google Scholar
  24. Lubin, A. (1957). Replicability as a publication criterion. American Psychologist, 8, 519–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. McNemar, Q. (1960). At random: Sense and nonsense. American Psychologist, 15, 295–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Michael, J. (1974). Statistical inference for individual organism research: Mixed blessing or curse? Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 7, 647–653.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Parsonson, B. S., & Baer, D. M. (1978). The analysis and presentation of graphic data. In T. R. Kratochwill (Ed.), Single-subject research: Strategies for evaluating change (pp. 101–165). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  28. Reynolds, G. S. (1961). Behavioral contrast. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 4, 57–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Risley, T. R. (1970). Behavior modification: An experimental-therapeutic endeavor. In L. A. Hamerlynk, P. O. Davidson, & L. E. Acker (Eds.), Behavior modification and ideal mental health services (pp. 103–127). Calgary, Alberta: University of Alberta Press.Google Scholar
  30. Rollings, P. J., Baumeister, A. A., & Baumeister, A. A. (1977). The use of overcorrection procedures to eliminate the stereotyped behaviors of retarded individuals. Behavior Modification, 1, 29–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Shapiro, E. S., Kazdin, A. E., & McGonigle, J. J. (1982). Multiple-treatment interference in the simultaneous- or alternating-treatments design. Behavioral Assessment, 4, 105–115.Google Scholar
  32. Sharpley, C. (1981). Visual analysis of operant data: Can we believe our eyes? Australian Behaviour Therapist, 8, 13–21.Google Scholar
  33. Sidman, M. (1960). Tactics of scientific research. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  34. Skinner, B. F. (1956). A case history in scientific method. American Psychologist, 11, 221–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Stirling, T. D. (1959). Publication decisions and their possible effects on inferences drawn from tests of significance—or vice-versa. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 54, 30–34.Google Scholar
  36. Tukey, J. W. (1977). Exploratory data analysis. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  37. Ulman, J. D., & Sulzer-Azaroff, B. (1975). Multi-element baseline design in educational research. In E. Ramp & G. Semb (Eds.), Behavior analysis: Areas of research and application (pp. 377–391). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  38. Wampold, B. E., & Furlong, M. J. (1981). The heuristics of visual inference. Behavioral Assessment, 3, 79–92.Google Scholar
  39. Westra, D. P. (1979). Testing interventions in the interrupted time series quasi-experiment: The reliability of Box-Jenkins noise model specification with short series. Dissertation Abstracts, 39 (11), 5621-B.Google Scholar
  40. Wolery, M., & Billingsley, F. F. (1982). The application of Revusky’s R n test to slope and level changes. Behavioral Assessment, 4, 93–103.Google Scholar
  41. Wolf, M. M. (1978). Social validity: The case for subjective measurement, or How applied behavior analysis is finding its heart. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 11, 203–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zinkgraf, S. A., & Willson, V. L. (1981). The use of the Box-Jenkins approach in causal modelling: An investigation of the cost of misidentification of selected stationary models. In O. D. Anderson & M. R. Perryman (Eds.), Time series analysis (pp. 651–653). Amsterdam: North Holland.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry S. Parsonson
    • 1
  • Donald M. Baer
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of WaikatoHamiltonNew Zealand
  2. 2.Department of Human DevelopmentUniversity of KansasLawrenceUSA

Personalised recommendations