Scanning Tunneling Microscopy
Since its inception in 1982, the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) has proven to be a powerful tool in the sutdy of surfaces.(1–5) Ordered arrays of atoms and disordered atomic features have been observed on many metal and semiconductor surfaces. Clean surfaces as well as isolated adsorbates and thin overlayers have been studied. The STM has been used in a variety of environments including ultrahigh vacuum (UHV), air, and various liquids, and at temperatures ranging from liquid helium to above room temperature.
KeywordsSeanning Tunneling Mieroseope State Density Tunnel Current Seanning Tunneling Mieroseope Image Empty State
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