Even Local Probabilities Lead to the Paradox
The essence of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox(1) is the incompatibility at the experimental level between some empirical predictions of quantum theory and the consequences of local realism. This incompatibility has become fully evident after the 1965 paper by Bell(2) in which a class of local hidden-variable models was shown to lead to the validity of an inequality (“Bell’s inequality”) that is sometimes grossly violated by quantum mechanics. That pioneering work led slowly to the awareness that, more generally, it was the philosophy of local realism itself (in any traditional definition of terms locality and realism) that disagreed at the empirical level with the existing quantum theory. This striking diagreement led Stapp(3) to the conclusion that “Bell’s theorem is the most profound discovery of science.”
KeywordsQuantum Theory Local Probability Statistical Ensemble Individual Probability Local Realism
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