Introduction to Two-Particle Interferometry
Ordinary interferometry employs beams of particles -- photons, electrons, neutrons, and possible other particles — but the phenomena which it studies arise when two amplitudes associated with a single particle combine at a locus. When the single particle is characterized by a quantum state, the two amplitudes have a definite phase relation. The variation of the relative phase as one or more parameters vary gives rise to the familiar inter-ferometric “fringe” pattern, which characteristically is sinusoidal.
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