Advertisement

Reflection Absorption Infrared Spectroscopy

  • Brian E. Hayden
Part of the Methods of Surface Characterization book series (MOSC, volume 1)

Abstract

Much of the information concerning the bonding and symmetry of molecules in the gaseous, liquid, and solid states has come from the study of molecular vibrations using infrared spectroscopy. It seemed, therefore, only natural that infrared spectroscopy should be extended to provide a vibrational spectroscopic technique for the study of the adsorbed phase. The first step in this direction appears to have been taken by Buswell et al. in 1938,(1) extending the traditional transmission ir technique to the study of adsorbed water on montmorillonite clay surfaces. It was not until the 1950s that the ir transmission method was again taken up by several groups to study adsorbed species on high surface area materials.(2-4) Perhaps the most remarkable of these experiments was the work of Eischens and co-workers in 1956,(4) who studied the adsorption of CO on supported nickel, palladium, and platinum catalysts. A comparison of the spectra obtained on the catalysts with those of various metal carbonyl complexes enabled then to assign bands to various adsorption configurations (i.e., linear and bridging), and to recognize the influence of vibrational coupling on the C-O stretch vibration of adsorbed CO. Indeed, their results and interpretations have been largely substantiated in work on single-crystal surfaces, as will be seen in Section 3 of this chapter.

Keywords

Dipole Coupling Noise Equivalent Power Absorption Infrared Spectroscopy Vibrational Coupling Pure Dephasing 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    A. M. Buswell, K. Krebs, and W. H. Rodebush, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 59, 2603 (1937).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    N. G. Yaroslavski, and A. V. Karyakin, Dokl. Acad. Nauk SSR 85, 1103 (1952).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    N. Sheppard and D. J. C. Yates, Proc. R. Soc. London A 238, 69 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. P. Eischens, S. A. Francis, and W. A. Pliskin, J. Phys. Chem. 60, 194 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    L. H. Little, Infrared Spectra of Adsorbed Species, Academic, New York (1966).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. L. Hair, Infrared Spectroscopy in Surface Chemistry, Marcel Dekker, New York (1967).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    R. P. Eischens and W. A. Pliskin, Adv. Catal. 10, 1 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. F. Harrod, R. W. Roberts, and E. F. Rissmann, J. Chem. Phys. 71, 343 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    H. L. Pickering and H. C. Eckstrom, J. Phys. Chem. 63, 512 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. A. Francis and A. H. Ellison, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 131 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. L. Kottke, R. G. Greenler, and H. G. Tompkins, Surf. Sci. 32, 231 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    R. G. Greenler, J. Chem. Phys. 50, 1963 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. D. J. Low and J. C. McManus, Chem. Commun. 1166 (1967).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. M. Bradshaw, J. Pritchard and M. L. Sims, Chem. Commun. 1519 (1968).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    H. C. Eckstrom, G. G. Possley, S. E. Hannum, and W. H. Smith, J. Chem. Phys. 52, 5435 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    R. G. Greenler, J. Chem. Phys. 44, 310 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    R. G. Greenler, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 2(2), 265 (1974).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    R. G. Greenler, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 1410 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    J. Pritchard and M. L. Sims, Trans. Faraday Sco. 66, 427 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    G. W. Poling, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 34, 365 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    R. G. Greenler, R. R. Rahn, and J. P. Schwartz, J. Catal. 23, 42 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    J. D. E. Mclntyre and D. E. Aspnes, Surf Sci. 24, 417 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23a.
    R. W. Ditchburn, Light, Blackie, London (1952);Google Scholar
  24. 23b.
    E. A. Stratton, Electromagnetic Theory, McGraw-Hill, New York (1941);Google Scholar
  25. 23c.
    O. S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films. Butterworths, London (1955).Google Scholar
  26. 24.
    P. Hollins and J. Pritchard, in Vibrational Spectroscopy of Adsorbates (R. F. Willis, ed.), Springer Series in Chemical Physics, Vol. 15, Springer, Berlin (1980).Google Scholar
  27. 25.
    M. Ito and W. Suetaka, J. Phys. Chem. 79, 1190 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 26.
    R. F. Willis, A. A. Lucas, and G. D. Mahan, in The Chemical Physics of Solid Surfaces and Heterogeneous Catalysis, Vol. 2 (D. A. King and D. P. Woodruff, eds.), Elsevier, Amsterdam (1982), p. 59.Google Scholar
  29. 27.
    F. M. Hoffmann, Infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy of adsorbed molecules, Surf Sci. Reports, 3, 2/3 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 28.
    J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Wiley, New York (1962), p. 110.Google Scholar
  31. 29.
    J. F. Blanke, S. E. Vincent, and J. Overend, Spectrochim. Acta, 32A, 163 (1976).Google Scholar
  32. 30.
    N. D. S. Canning and M. A. Chesters, J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 19, 69 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 31.
    P. W. Kruse, L. D. McGlauchlin, and R. B. McQuistan, Elements of Infrared Technology, Wiley, New York (1962).Google Scholar
  34. 32.
    P. Hollins and J. Pritchard, J. Vac. Sci Technol. 17, 665 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 33a.
    P. Hollins and J. Pritchard, American Institute of Physics Handbook, McGraw-Hill, New York (1963);Google Scholar
  36. 33b.
    D. E. McCarthy Appl. Opt. 2, 591 (1963);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 33c.
    D. E. McCarthy 4, 317, 507, 878 (1965);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 33d.
    D. E. McCarthy 6, 1896 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 34a.
    J. J. Turner, in Vibrational SpectroscopyModern Trends (A. J. Barnes and W. J. Orville-Thomas, eds.), Elsevier, New York (1977);Google Scholar
  40. 34b.
    R. L. Byer, in Tunable Lasers and Applications, (A. Mooradian, T. Jaeger and P. Stokseth, eds.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin (1976).Google Scholar
  41. 35.
    J. R. Stevenson, H. Ellis, and R. Bartlett, Appl. Opt. 12, 2884 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 36.
    J. R. Stevenson and J. J. Latheart, Nucl. Instrum. Methods. 172, 367 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 37.
    P. Lagarde, Infrared Phys. 18, 395 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 38a.
    G. P. Williams, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Report 26947 (1979);Google Scholar
  45. 38b.
    G. P. Williams and R. N. Brawer, BNL 28265 (1980).Google Scholar
  46. 39.
    W. D. Duncan and J. Yarwood, Technical Memorandum, Daresbury.Google Scholar
  47. 40.
    J. Nagel and E. Schweizer, Technical Report BESSY, TB 63/84 (1984).Google Scholar
  48. 41a.
    K. Horn and J. Pritchard, Surf Sci. 52, 437 (1975);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 41b.
    J. Phys. (Paris) 38, C4, 164 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 42.
    P. Hollins and J. Pritchard, Surf Sci. 456 (1979).Google Scholar
  51. 43.
    R. A. Shigeishi and D. A. King, Surf. Sci. 58, 379 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 44.
    F. J. Krebs and H. Lüth, Appl. Phys. 14, 337 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 45.
    J. C. Campuzano and R. G. Greenler, Surf. Sci. 83, 301 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 46.
    A. M. Bradshaw and F. M. Hoffmann, Surf Sci. 72, 513 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 47.
    B. E. Hayden and A. M. Bradshaw, Surf Sci. 125, 787 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 48.
    R. Ryberg, Surf Sci. 114, 627 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 49.
    K. D. Möller and W. G. Rotschild, Far Infrared Spectroscopy, Wiley-Interscience, New York (1971).Google Scholar
  58. 50.
    R. Ryberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1579 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 51a.
    W. G. Golden, D. S. Dunn, and J. Overend, J. Phys. Chem. 82, 843 (1978);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 51b.
    W. G. Golden, D. S. Dunn, and J. Overend J. Catal. 71, 395 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 52.
    J. Chamberlain, The Principles of Interferometric Spectroscopy, Wiley, New York (1979).Google Scholar
  62. 53.
    M. D. Baker and M. A. Chesters, in Vibrations at Surfaces (R. Caudona, J. M. Gilles, and A. A. Lucas, eds.), Plenum Press, New York (1982).Google Scholar
  63. 54.
    W. G. Golden and D. A. Saperstein, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 30, 43 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 55.
    M. J. Dignam and M. D. Baker, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 21, 80 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 56.
    W. G. Golden, D. D. Saperstein, M. W. Stevenson, and J. Overend, J. Phys. Chem., in press.Google Scholar
  66. 57.
    M. Cardona, Modulation spectroscopy, Sol. State Phys. Suppl. 11, 105 (1969).Google Scholar
  67. 58.
    J. Pritchard, in Modem Methods of Surface Analysis, DECHEMA Monograph No. 78, DECHEMA Frankfurt (1975).Google Scholar
  68. 59.
    A. M. Bradshaw and F. M. Hoffmann, Surf. Sci. 52, 449 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 60.
    F. M. Hoffmann, Ph.D. thesis, University of Munich (1977).Google Scholar
  70. 61.
    B. E. Hayden, K. Kretzschmar, and A. M. Bradshaw, Surf. Sci. 123, 366 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 62.
    D. S. Dunn, W. G. Golden, M. W. Severson, and J. Overend, J. Phys. Chem. 84, 336 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 63.
    J. D. Fedyk, M. Mahaffy, and M. J. Dignam, Surf. Sci. 89, 404 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 64.
    R. D. Hudson Jr. and J. W. Hudson (ed.), Infrared Detectors, Benchmark Papers in Optics 2, Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross (1975).Google Scholar
  74. 65.
    R. J. Keyes (ed.), Optical and Infrared Detectors, Topics in Applied Physics, Vol. 19, Springer-Verlag, New York (1977).Google Scholar
  75. 66.
    F. A. Cotton, Chemical Applications of Group Theory, Wiley-Interscience, New York (1971).Google Scholar
  76. 67.
    S. Lehwald, H. Ibach, and J. E. Demuth, Surf. Sci. 78, 577 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 68.
    N. V. Richardson and A. M. Bradshaw, in Electron Spectroscopy: Theory, Techniques and Applications (B. Baker and R. Brundle, eds.), Vol. 4, p. 153, Academic, London (1980).Google Scholar
  78. 69.
    K. Horn, in Vibrations in Adsorbed Layers, Conf. Proc. KFA Jülich (H. Ibach and S. Lehwald, eds.), p. 141 (1978).Google Scholar
  79. 70.
    R. Ryberg, Chem. Phys. Lett. 83, 423 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 71a.
    B. E. Hayden, K. C. Prince, D. P. Woodruff, and A. M. Bradshaw, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 475 (1983);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 71b71.
    Surf. Sci. 133, 589 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 72.
    K. Horn, private communication.Google Scholar
  83. 73.
    G. Hertzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure, Vol. 2, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York (1945).Google Scholar
  84. 74.
    B. A. Sexton, Surf. Sci. 88, 319 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 75.
    K. Ito and H. J. Bernstein, Can. J. Chem. 34, 1970 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 76.
    N. Sheppard and T. T. Nguyen, in Vibrations in Adsorbed Layers, Conf. Proc. KFA Jülich (H. Ibach and S. Lehwald, eds.), p. 146 (1978).Google Scholar
  87. 77.
    R. P. Eischens, S. A. Francis, and W. A. Pliskin, J. Phys. Chem. 60, 194 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 78.
    N. Sheppard and T. T. Nguyen, in Advances in Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy, Vol. 5 (R. E. Hester and R. J. H. Clark, eds.), Heyden and Son, London (1978).Google Scholar
  89. 79.
    A. Ortega, F. M. Hoffmann, and A. M. Bradshaw, Surf Sci. 119, 79 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 80.
    P. Hofmann, R. Ortega, F. M. Hoffmann, K. Kretzschmar, and A. M. Bradshaw, Surf Sci., to be submitted.Google Scholar
  91. 81.
    J. C. Tracy and P. W. Palmberg, J. Chem. Phys. 51, 4852 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 82.
    R. J. Behm, K. Christmann, and G. Ertl, J. Chem. Phys. 73, 2984 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 83.
    B. E. Hayden, K. Kretzschmar, and A. M. Bradshaw, Surf Sci. 155, 553 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 84.
    G. Ertl, M. Neumann, and K. M. Streit, Surf. Sci. 64, 393 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 85.
    A. M. Baro and H. Ibach, J. Chem. Phys. 71, 4812 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 86.
    N. R. Avery, J. Chem. Phys. 74, 4202 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 87.
    F. A. Cotton, L. Kruczynski, B. L. Shapiro, and L. F. Johnson, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 94, 6191 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 88.
    R. D. Adams and F. A. Cotton, in Dynamic N.M.R. Spectroscopy (L. M. Jackman, M. Lloyd, and F. A. Cotton, eds.), Academic, New York, p. 489 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 89.
    J. Pritchard, in Vibrations in Adsorbed Layers, Conference Records Series of KFA (H. Ibach and S. Lehwald, eds.), Jülich (1978), p. 114.Google Scholar
  100. 90.
    J. Pritchard, T. Catterick, and R. K. Gupta, Surf. Sci. 53, 1 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 91.
    R. Van Hardeveld and A. Van Montfoort, Surf. Sci. 4, 396 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 92.
    B. E. Hayden, K. Kretzschmar, A. M. Bradshaw, and R. G. Greenler, Surf. Sci. 149, 1394 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 93.
    R. G. Greenler, B. E. Hayden, K. Kretzschmar, R. Klauser, and A. M. Bradshaw, Proc. 9th Intern. Congress on Catalysis, Berlin IV-197, Verlag Chemie, Weinheim (1984).Google Scholar
  104. 94.
    R. G. Greenler, K. D. Burch, K. Kretzschmar, R. Klauser, A. M. Bradshaw, and B. E. Hayden, Surf. Sci. 152, 338 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 95.
    R. G. Greenler and K. D. Burch, to be published.Google Scholar
  106. 96.
    P. Hollins, K. J. Davis, and J. Pritchard, Surf Sci. 138, 74 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 97.
    A. A. Davydov and A. T. Bell, J. Catal. 49, 332 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 98.
    P. Hollins and J. Pritchard, Surf Sci. 134, 91 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 99.
    G. D. Mahan and A. A. Lucas, J. Chem. Phys. 68, 1344 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 100.
    M. Trenary, K. J. Uram, F. Bozos, and J. T. Yates Jr., Surf Sci. 146, 269 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 101.
    M. Moskovits and J. E. Hulse, Surf Sci. 78, 397 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 102.
    S. Efrima and H. Metiu, Surf Sci. 109, 109 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 103.
    G. Blyholder, J. Phys. Chem. 68, 2772 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 104.
    M. A. Chester, J. Pritchard, and M. L. Sims in Adsorption-Desorption Phenomena, (F. Ricca, ed.), Academic, London (1972), p. 277.Google Scholar
  115. 105.
    P. Hollins and J. Pritchard, in Vibrational Spectroscopies for Adsrobed Species ACS Symposium Series No. 137, Am. Chem. Soc, Washington (1980).Google Scholar
  116. 106.
    D. P. Woodruff, B. E. Hayden, K. C. Prince, and A. M. Bradshaw, Surf. Sci. 123, 397 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 107a.
    For example C. R. Brundle, P. S. Bagus, D. Mensel, and K. Hermann, Phys. Rev. B 24, 7041 (1981);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 107b.
    R. P. Messner, S. H. Larmson, and D. R. Salahub, Phys. Rev. B 25, 3576 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 108.
    R. M. Hammaker, S. A. Francis, and R. P. Eischens, Spectrochim. Acta 21, 1295 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 109.
    B. E. Hayden, Surf. Sci. 131, 419 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 110.
    A. Crossley and D. A. King, Surf Sci. 68, 528 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 111.
    H. Pfniir, D. Mensel, F. M. Hoffmann, A. Ortega, and A. M. Bradshaw, Surf Sci. 93, 431 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 112.
    A. Crossley and D. A. King, Surf Sci. 95, 131 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 113.
    D. A. King, J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 29, 11 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 114.
    P. Hollins, Surf. Sci. 107, 75 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 115.
    G. K. T. Conn and D. G. Avery, Infrared Methods, Academic, New York (1960).Google Scholar
  127. 116.
    J. Pritchard, Surf Sci. 79, 231 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 117.
    J. P. Briberian and M. A. van Hove, Surf Sci. 118, 443 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 118.
    B. N. J. Persson and R. Ryberg, Phys. Rev. B 24, 6954 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 119.
    B. N. J. Persson, J. Phys. Chem. 17, 4741 (1984).Google Scholar
  131. 120.
    J. W. Gadzuk and A. C. Luntz, Surf Sci. 144, 429 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 121.
    M. Metiu and W. E. Palke, J. Chem. Phys. 69, 2574 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 122.
    B. N. J. Persson and M. Persson, Surf Sci. 97, 609 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 123.
    M. A. Kozkusknev, V. G. Kistalev, and B. R. Shub, Surf Sci. 81, 261 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 124.
    P. Apell, Phys. Scr. 29, 146 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 125.
    B. N. J. Persson and M. Persson, Solid State Commun. 36, 175 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 126.
    B. N. J. Persson and R. Ryberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 549 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 127.
    R. M. Corn and H. L. Strauss, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 4834 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 128.
    H. Ibach, Surf. Sci. 66, 56 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 129.
    S. Anderson and J. Davenport, Solid State Commun. 28, 677 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 130.
    M. Scheffler, Surf. Sci. 81, 562 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 131.
    K. Kretzschmar, J. K. Sass, A. M. Bradshaw, and S. Holloway, Surf Sci. 115, 183 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 132.
    E. Schweizer and A. M. Bradshaw, private communication.Google Scholar
  144. 133.
    A. Luntz, private communication.Google Scholar
  145. 134.
    R. D. Kelley and D. W. Goodman, in The Chemical Physics of Solid Surfaces and Heterogeneous Catalysis (D. A. King and D. P. Woodruff, eds.), Vol. 4, p. 427, Elsevier, Amsterdam (1981).Google Scholar
  146. 135a.
    J. M. White, Science 218, 429 (1982);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 135b.
    J. Demuth and P. Avouris, Phys. Today 36(11), 62 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 136.
    M. Trenary, K. F. Uram, and J. T. Yates Jr., Surf Sci. 157, 512 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 137a.
    P. Gelin and J. T. Yates Jr., Surf. Sci. 136, 21 (1984);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 137b.
    P. Gelin, A. R. Siedle, and J. T. Yates Jr., J. Phys. Chem. 88, 2978 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brian E. Hayden
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of BathBathEngland
  2. 2.Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck SocietyBerlin 33West Germany

Personalised recommendations