Advertisement

Amorphous Materials as Optical Information Media

  • Stanford R. Ovshinsky
Part of the Institute for Amorphous Studies Series book series (IASS)

Abstract

We view amorphous materials as being ideal matrices for the encoding of information by optical or other means.1–10 The result can be the storage and reproduction of information serially or in parallel. The laser is ideal for the digital storage of information. One can achieve an exceedingly high density (one micron spots closely spaced) with a high signal to noise ratio, and utilize the same laser for reading, writing, and erasing. For higher densities, scanning electron beams are used.8

Keywords

Lone Pair Amorphous Material Optical Information Amorphous Semiconductor Memory Material 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References and Footnotes

  1. 1.
    S. R. Ovshinsky. “The Ovshinsky Switch,” presented at the 5th Annual National Conference on Industrial Research, Chicago. September 19, 1969: Proceedings pp. 86–90.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. R. Ovshinsky. “An Introduction to Ovonic Research.” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 2: 99–106 (1970).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    S. R. Ovshinsky and I. M. Ovshinsky, “Analog Models for Information Storage and Transmission in Physiological Systems,” Mat. Res. Bull. 5: 681–690 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    S. R. Ovshinsky and H. Fritzsche, “Amorphous Semiconductors for Switching. Memory, and Imaging Applications,” IEEE Trans, on Electron Devices ED-20: 91–105 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    S. R. Ovshinsky, “Optical Information Encoding in Amorphous Semiconductors,” presented at the Topical Meeting on Optical Storage of Digital Data, Aspen, Colorado, March 1973.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    S. R. Ovshinsky and I. M. Ovshinsky, “Optical Information Encloding in Amorphous Semiconductors,” presented at the SPSE 14th Annual Fall Symposium, Washington, DC, October, 1974; Proceedings pp. 37–39.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    S. R. Ovshinsky and P. H. Klose, “Reversible, High-Speed, High-Resolution Imaging in Amorphous Semiconductors,” in 1971 SID International Symposium, Digest of Technical Papers, pp. 58–61; also see Proceedings of the SID 13: 188–192 (1972).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    S. R. Ovshinsky and P. H. Klose, “Imaging in Amorphous Materials by Structural Alteration,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 8–10: 892–898 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    S. R. Ovshinsky and P. H. Klose, “Imaging by Photostructural Changes,” in Proceedings of the Symposium on Nonsilver Photographic Processes, New College, Oxford, September 1973; edited by R. J. Cox, Academic Press, London 1975, pp. 61–70.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. R. Ovshinsky, “Electronic and Structural Changes in Amorphous Materials as a Means of Information Storage and Imaging.” presented at the 4th International Congress for Reprography and Information 1975, Hanover, Germany, April 13–17, 1975; Proceedings pp. 109–114.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. Kastner, “Bonding Bands, Lone-Pair Bands, and Impurity States in Chalcogenide Semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28: 355–357 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    S. R. Ovshinsky and K. Sapru, “Three-Dimensional Model of Structure and Electronic Properties of Chalcogenide Glasses,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Amorphous and Liquid Semiconductors, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, September 3–8, 1973, edited by J. Stuke and W. Brenig, Taylor & Francis, London, 1974, Volume 1, pp. 447–452.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    The introduction of disorder into periodicity is a common link between crystals and amorphous material. Surfaces even of single crystals are disordered and single crystals cannot be made into large area films or tapes for imaging purposes. Polycrystalline materials introduce new dimensions of disorder. Therefore, to study the spectrum of disorder is to begin the study of amorphous materials.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. Feinleib, S. Iwasa, S. C. Moss, J. P. deNeufville, and S. R. Ovshinsky, “Reversible Optical Effects in Amorphous Semiconductors, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 8–10: 909–916 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. Feinleib, J. P. deNeufville, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky, “Rapid Reversible Light-Induced Crystallization of Amorphous Semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18: 254–257(1971).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    R. G. Neale and J. A. Aseltine, “The Application of Amorphous Materials to Computer Memories,” IEEE Trans, on Electron Devices ED-20: 195–205 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    R. J. von Gutfed and P. Chaudhari, “Laser Writing and Erasing on Chalcogenide Films,” J. Appl. Phys. 43: 4688–4693 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    A. W. Smith, “Injection Laser Writing on Chalcogenide Films,” Appl. Optics 13: 795 (1974).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    P. Chaudhari, J. J. Cuomo, and R. J. Gambino, “Amorphous Metallic Films for Magneto-Optic Applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22: 337–339 (1973).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. Feinleib and S. R. Ovshinsky, “Reflectivity Studies of the Te (Ge, As)-Based Amorphous Semiconductor in the Conducting and Insulating States,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 4:564–572(1970).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    J. P. deNeufville, “Optical Information Storage,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Amorphous and Liquid Semiconductors, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, September 3–8, 1973, edited by J. Stuke and W. Brenig, Taylor & Francis, London, 1974, Volume II, pp. 1351–1360.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    J. P. deNeufville, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky “Photostructural Transformations in Amorphous As2Se3 And As2S3 Films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 13: 191–223 (1973/ 74).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. P. deNeufville, R. Seguin, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky, “Mechanism of Reversible Optical Storage in Evaporated Amorphous AsSe and Ge10As40Se5O,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Amorphous and Liquid Semiconductors, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, September 3–8, 1973, edited by J. Stuke and W. Brenig, Taylor & Francis, London, 1974, Vol. II. pp. 737–743.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    T. Igo and Y. Toyoshima, “A Reversible Optical Change in the As-Se-Ge Glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 11: 304–308 (1973).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    S. A. Keneman, “Hoiogram Storage in Arsenic Trisulfide Thin Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19:205–207(1971).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    K. Tanaka and M. Kikuchi, “On the Interpretation of Photographic Effects in Amorphous As-S Films,” Solid State Communications 13: 669 (1973).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    S. R. Ovshinsky, Y. Chang, and A. Eisenberg, to be published.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Y. Chang and S. R. Ovshinsky, 1973, unpublished.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    H. Fritzsche, Amorphous and Liquid Semiconductors, edited by J. Tauc. Plenum Press, London, 1974, pp. 221–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stanford R. Ovshinsky
    • 1
  1. 1.Energy Conversion Devices, Inc.TroyUSA

Personalised recommendations