Biological Rhythms

  • Franz Halberg
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 54)


“Before the advent of the theory of relativity it had always been tacitly assumed in physics that the statement of time had an absolute significance, i.e., that it is independent of the state of motion of the body of reference” (Einstein, 1920, 1922). Einstein challenged the concept of simultaneity for events taking place at a great distance, said to occur at the same moment in some “absolute time.” He conceived of time as a coordinate always associated with the three space coordinates for any reference body under consideration in a four-dimensional manifold. To many physicists today time is not absolute, but only a measurement that depends on the frame of reference from which it is made (Einstein, 1920, 1922, 1905). Einstein emphasized that a statement of the time of an event has no meaning unless it is accompanied by an indication of the reference body. (As a consequence he claimed the passage of time is retarded in a system moving at high speed. According to his theory of relativity, events in a high-speed system appear to occur more slowly — including life processes, notably aging. The problem of whether the passage of time depends upon speed continues to be a subject of experimentation [Hafele and Keating, 1972] as well as debate [Terrell, 1972]).


Circadian Rhythm Cold Spring Harbor Blood Eosinophil Circadian System Biological Rhythm 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Franz Halberg
    • 1
  1. 1.Chronobiology Laboratories, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology Health Sciences CenterUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

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