The Shift in Wavelength with Voltage of Certain X-Ray Lines
The wavelenth or energy of a characteristic x-ray line is generally considered to be independent of the energy of the particles (electrons, photons, protons, etc.) used to excite it. However, when a precise wavelength or a detailed line shape is needed, it is found that the exciting particle energy can be quite influential. Available data on some of these cases will be summarized and a few will be discussed in detail. The cases to be considered include threshold excitation of some first transition metal Ka lines, wavelength shifts and shape changes due to self-absorption and satellites in the L spectra of these metals, gross structure introduced by self-absorption into the M spectra of the lanthanides, and wavelength shifts of M lines in lanthanum for near- threshold electron excitation. The significance of these changes for wavelength studies, elemental analysis, valance band studies, and chemical bonding will be discussed.
KeywordsShape Change Wavelength Shift Excitation Condition Threshold Excitation Incident Electron Energy
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