High-Energy Electron-Diffraction and X-Ray Emission Analysis of Surfaces and Their Reaction Products
A technique which can provide both structural and chemical information from surface films at the monolayer level has been developed. For structure studies the grazing incidence, high-energy electron-diffraction method has been applied in ultra-high vaccum. The portion of the specimen surface irradiated during electron-diffraction observations acts as a line source of x-rays located at the focus of a low-atomic-number x-ray spectrometer. The ultra-high-vacuum environment in the diffraction chamber is separated from that of the conventional vacuum spectrometer by an x-ray-transparent window. Characteristic Ka radiation from monolayer quantities of both carbon and oxygen on a low-index surface of iron has been observed. Diffraction patterns and x-ray information may be obtained from such structures simultaneously. Attempts to calibrate the apparatus for carbon and oxygen layers on iron are discussed in some detail. The method appears well suited to the study of kinetic phenomena in surface films of mean thickness less than 100 Å.
KeywordsContact Angle Stearic Acid Grazing Angle Silver Bromide Methylene Iodide
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