Dispersive and Nondispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Methods for the Measurement of the Thicknesses of Films of Cadmium Sulfide and Other II-VI Compounds

  • Frank L. Chan
Part of the Developments in Applied Spectroscopy book series (DAIS, volume 7a)


Cadmium sulfide and other II-VI compounds have been deposited on various substrates by the vacuum technique using a setup consisting of a mechanical pump and a diffusion pump. Attempts are being made to employ a high-speed turbo-molecular pump to produce the necessary vacuum. Such pumps have been claimed to produce higher vacuum than those of earlier types. The use of x-ray fluorescence seems to be the best method for the determination of thicknesses of films of these compounds. By using this method the determination can be carried out both rapidly and nondestructively, so that the samples can be used for further experimentation or preserved for future reference. Both the vacuum and air-path spectrometers were employed with the dispersive (conventional) x-ray fluorescence method, depending on the x-ray spectra used and the film thickness to be determined. The vacuum spectrometer described earlier has been modified to improve the intensity of the secondary x-ray. The modified setup with low-Z kit has been changed to accommodate four analyzing crystals in the vacuum chamber. The radioisotopes dysprosium-159, iodine-125, and others were used with the nondispersive x-ray fluorescence method. Recent instruments based on the dispersive and nondispersive systems are described here. Some of these instruments have been used to measure the thicknesses of films of II-VI compounds.


Scintillation Counter Cadmium Sulfide Analyze Crystal Cadmium Selenide Total Counting Time 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    D. C. Reynolds, G. Leies, L. L. Antes, and R. E. Marburger, Photovoltaic Effect in Cadmium Sulfide, Phys. Rev. 96, 533 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. E. Marburger, D. C. Reynolds, L. L. Antes, and R. S. Hogan, Quantum Yield of a Cadmium Sulfide Photovoltaic Cell, Phys. Rev. 100, 978 (1955).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    L. R. Shiozama, G. A. Sullivan, F. Augustine, and J. M. Jost, Research on the Mechanism of the Photovoltaic Effect in High Efficiency CdS Thin-Film Solar Cells. Contract AF 33(615)-5224, Second Quarterly Progress Report, Sept.-Nov. 1966.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    H. A. Liebhafsky and P. D. Zemany, Film Thickness by X-Ray Emission Spectrograph, Anal. Chem. 28, 455 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    William J. Campbell, Energy Dispersion X-Ray Analysis Using Radioactive Sources, X-Ray and Electron Methods of Analysis, H. van Olphen and W. Parish, eds.. Plenum Press, New York (1968), pp. 36–54.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    W. Barclay Jones and Robert A. Carpenter, Nondispersive X-Ray Fluorescent Spectrometer, Advances in X-Ray Analysis, Vol. 11, J. B. Newkirk, G. R. Maliett, and H. G. Pfeiffer, eds., Plenum Press, New York (1968), pp. 214–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Harry R. Bowman, Earl K. Hyde, Stanley G. Thompson, and Richard C. Jared, Science 151, 562–568 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. R. Rhodes, Analyst 96, 683–699 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    W. Barclay Jones and Robert A. Carpenter, Sensitivity of a Nondispersive X-Ray Fluorescent Spectrometer for Multielement Trace Analysis, presented at the Second International Symposium on Nucleonics in Space, Columbus, Ohio, July 1967.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Frank L. Chan, A Study of Silicon Determination in Organo-Siiicon Compounds by X-Ray Fluorescence with Vacuum Spectrograph, Analytical Chemistry, Society of Analytical Chemistry of Great Britain (1965).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Frank L.Chan, An Apparatus for the Analysis of Liquid Samples by the X-Ray Fluorescence Method with a Vacuum Spectrograph, Developments in Applied Spectroscopy, Vol. 5, L. R. Pearson and E. L. Grove, eds.. Plenum Press, New York (1966), pp. 59–75.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Frank L. Chan and Donald A. Brooks, A Study of Homogeneity of Solid Solutions of Cadmium Sulfide and Cadmium Selenide by X-Ray Fluorescence, Advances in X-Ray Analysis,Vol. 8, W. M. Mueller, G. R. Maliett, and M. J. Fay, eds.. Plenum Press, New York (1965), pp. 420–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Frank L. Chan, Some Observarions on the Use of Certain Analyzing Crystals for the Determination of Silicon and Aluminum, Advances in X-Ray Analysis, Vol. 9, G. R. Maliett, M. J. Fay, and W. M. Mueller, eds. Plenum Press, New York (1966), pp. 515–527.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Frank L. Chan and James T. Carpenter, Solid Solutions of Cadmium Sulfide - Cadmium Selenide Films, Advances in X-Ray Analysis, Vol. 12, C. S. Barrett, J. B. Newkirk, and G. R. Maliett, eds.. Plenum Press, New York. (1969), pp. 581–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    G. E. F. Lundell, H. A. Bright, and J. I. Hoffman, Applied Inorganic Analysis, John Wiley and Sons, New York (1953).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Frank L. Chan, A Study of X-Ray Fluorescence Method with Vacuum and Air-Path Spectrographs for the Determination of Film Thickness of II-VI Compounds, Advances in X-Ray Analysis, Vol. 11, J. B. Newkirk, G. R. Maliett, and H. G. Pfeiffer, eds.. Plenum Press, New York (1968), pp. 191–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    H. A. Liebhafsky, H. G. Pfeiffer, E. H. Winslow, and P. D. Zemany, X-Ray Absorption and Emission in Analytical Chemistry, John Wiley and Sons, New York (1960).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    L. S. Birks, R. J. Labrie, and J. W. Criss, Anal Chem. 38, 701–707 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    A. Vecht and A. ApUng, A New Method of Recrystallizing CdS Thin Films, Physica Status Solidi 3, 1238 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    A. Vecht, Methods of Activating and Recrystallizing Thin Films of II-VI Compounds, in: Physics of Thin Films, Vol. 3, Academic Press, New York (1966).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    William J.Campbell and James D.Brown, Annual Reviews, Anal Chem. 40, 346R (1968).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chicago Section of the Society for Applied Spectroscopy 1969

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frank L. Chan
    • 1
  1. 1.Chemistry Research Laboratory, Aerospace Research LaboratoriesWright-Patterson Air Force BaseUSA

Personalised recommendations