Use of X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy in the Chemical Analyses of Lake Sediments, Determining 41 Elements
Up to the present time, few really concentrated efforts have been directed toward the use of X-ray emission spectroscopy for natural samples. A procedure is described whereby 41 elements are quantitatively analyzed by X-ray emission spectroscopy in consecutive samples from a lake core, employing three target tubes, eight analyzing crystals, and two counter tubes. The elements encountered were sodium, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, potassium, calcium, scandium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, gallium, germanium, selenium, bromine, rubidium, strontium, zirconium, niobium, silver, cadmium, antimony, iodine, cesium, barium, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, samarium, hafnium, tungsten, platinum, and lead. Quantitative analyses involved three major procedures: the Compton scattering technique, the establishment of nomograms, and the making of comparative standards. Data are presented for the ranges of concentration of these elements. Other methods of analysis are used as a comparison.
KeywordsCompton Scattering Analyze Crystal Mass Absorption Coefficient Ammonium Dihydrogen Phosphate Lake Core
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