Advertisement

Electrocatalytic Properties of Carbon Materials

  • M. R. Tarasevich
  • E. I. Khrushcheva
Part of the Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry book series (MAOE, volume 19)

Abstract

One of the principal ways in which present-day electrochemical technology may be improved is the development of readily available electrode materials possessing high electrochemical activity and stability. Electrodes meeting these requirements can be produced on the basis of carbon materials.

Keywords

Activate Carbon Carbon Black Glassy Carbon Carbon Material Polarization Curve 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    V. I. Kasatochkin, Ed., Strukturnaya Khimiya Ugleroda i Uglei, Nauka, Moscow, 1969.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    P. L. Walker, Jr., Ed., Chemistry and Physics of Carbon, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1965.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. R. Ubbelohde and F. A. Lewis, Graphite and Its Crystal Compounds, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1960.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    I. L. Spain, in Chemistry and Physics of Carbon, Ed. by P. L. Walker and P. A. Thrower, Vol. 8, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1973, p. 1.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yu. N. Novikov and M. E. Vol’pin, Usp. Khim. 40 (1971) 1568.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. F. Willis, B. Fitton, and G. S. Painter, Phys. Rev. B 9 (1974) 1926.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    F. R. McFeely, S. P. Kowalczyk, L. Ley, R. G. Cavell, R. A. Pollak, and D. A. Shirley, Phys. Rev. B9 (1974) 5268.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. S. Baev, A. G. Zelenkov, V. M. Kulakov, B. V. Odinov, V. P. Smilga, Yu. A. Teterin, Yu. P. Tumanov, and O. K. Chugunov, Zh. Strukt. Khim. 21 (1980) 29.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    C. Beyreuther, R. Hierl, and G. Wiech, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 79 (1975) 1081.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. A. Tagle, Saez V. Martinez, J. M. Rojo, and M. Salmeron, Surface Sci. 77 (1978) 77.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. S. Fialkov, A. I. Baver, N. M. Sidorov, M. I. Chaikun, and S. M. Rabinovich, Usp. Khim. 34 (1965) 132.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. C. Bokros, in Chemistry and Physics of Carbon, Vol. 5, Ed. by P. L. Walker, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1969.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. W. Moore, in Chemistry and Physics of Carbon, Vol. 11, Ed. by P. L. Walker and P. A. Thrower, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1973, p. 69.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    B. Lang, Surface Sci. 80 (1979) 38.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    V. D. Chekanova and A. S. Fialkov, Usp. Khim. 40 (1971) 777.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. Wang, Electrochim. Acta 26 (1981) 1721.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    V. P. Zuev and V. V. Mikhailov, Proizvodstvo Sazhi, Khimiya, Moscow, 1970.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    V. F. Surovikin and N. N. Lezhnev, Eds., Puti Razvitiya Promyshlennosti Tehnicheskogo Ugleroda, Institut Shinnoi Promyshlennosti, Moscow, 1976.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    W N. Reynolds, in Chemistry and Physics of Carbon, Vol. 11, Ed. by P. L. Walker and P. A. Thrower, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1973, p. 1.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    A. A. Kankin, Uglerodnye i Drugie Zharostoikie Voloknistye Materialy, Khimiya, Moscow, 1974.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    M. Smisek and S. Cerny, Active Carbon, Manufacture, Properties and Applications, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1970.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    I. A. Tarkovskaya, Okislennyi Ugol’, Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 1981.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. S. Mattson and H. B. Makr, Activated Carbon, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1971.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    S. D. Levina, Usp. Khim. 9 (1940) 196.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    D. N. Strazhesko, Adsorbtsiya i Adsorbenty 4 (1976) 3.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    J. B. Donnet, Carbon 6 (1968) 161.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    H. P. Boehm, in Advances in Catalysis and Related Subjects, Vol. 16, Ed. by B. Weisz, Academic Press, New York, 1966, p. 179.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Th. van der Plas, in Physical and Chemical Aspects of Adsorbents and Catalysts, Ed. by B. G. Linsen, Academic Press, London, 1970.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    B. R. Puri, in Chemistry and Physics of Carbon, Vol. 6, Ed. by P. L. Walker, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1970, p. 191.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    M. M. Dubinin, in Chemistry and Physics of Carbon, Vol. 2, Ed. by P. L. Walker, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1966, p. 251.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    V. G. Nikolaev and V. V. Strelko, Gemosorbtsiya na Aktivirovannykh Uglyakh, Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 1979.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    G. H. Hammer and L. T. Drzal, Appl. Surface Sci. 52 (N3) (1980) 340–355.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    K. W. Sykes and P. White, Trans. Faraday Soc. 52 (1956) 660.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    C. H. Chang, Carbon 19 (1981) 175.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    F. E. Bartell and E. J. Miller, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 44 (1922) 1866.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    R. K. Burshtein and A. N. Frumkin, Z. Phys. Chem. (Leipzig) 141A (1929) 219.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    H. R. Kruyt and G. S. Kadt, Kolloid. Z. 47 (1929) 44.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    L. K. Lepin, Usp. Khim. 9 (1940) 533.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    V. A. Garten and D. E. Weiss, Rev. Pure Appl. Chem. 7 (1957) 69.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    S. S. Barton and B. H. Harrison, Carbon 13 (1975) 283.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    G. R. Hennig, in Proc. 5th Conf Carbon, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1962, Vol. 1, p. 143.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    R. T. Yang and C. Wong, J. Chem. Phys. 75 (1981) 4471.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    J. V. Hallum and H. V. Drushel, J. Phys. Chem. 62 (1958) 110.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    V. Yu. Glushchenko, in Adsorbtsiya i Poristost’, Ed. by M. M. Dubinin, V. V. Serpinskii, M. Nauka, 1976, p. 35.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    E. Papier and E. Guyon. Carbon 16 (1978) 127.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    V. A. Garten, D. E. Weiss, and J. B. Willis, Aust. J. Chem. 10 (1957) 295.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    R. A. Friedel and L. J. E. Hofer, J. Phys. Chem. 74 (1970) 2921.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    V. I. Lygin, N. V. Kovaleva, N. N. Kavtaradze, and A. V. Kiselev, Kolloid. Zh. 22 (1960) 334.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    J. Zawadzki, Carbon 16 (1978) 491.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    J. M. Thomas, E. L. Evans, M. Barber, and P. Swift, Trans. Faraday Soc. 67 (1971) 1875.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    M. Barber, E. L. Evans, and J. M. Thomas, Chem. Phys. Lett. 18 (1973) 423.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    H. Marsh, A. D. Foord, J. S. Mattson, J. M. Thomas, and E. L. Evans, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 49 (1974) 368.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    V. V. Korshak, Ed., Progress v Polimernoy Khimii, Nauka, Moscow, 1963.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    R. K. Burshtein and N. B. Miller, Zh. Fiz. Khim. 23 (1949) 43.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    E. A. Ponomarenko, A. N. Frumkin, and R. K. Burshtein, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Khim. 1963 1549.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    V. A. Boehm and M. Voll, Carbon 8 (1970) 227.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    S. Mrozowski and A. Gutsze, Carbon 15 (1977) 335.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    L. M. Vasil’eva, V. F. Anufrienko, and A. A. Shklyaev, Kinet. Katal. 12 (1971) 1310.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    C. A. Coulson, in Proc. 4th Conf. Carbon, Pergamon Press, New York, 1960, p. 215.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    A. D. Grishina and A. P. Semenov, Elektrokhimiya 9 (1973) 719.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    A. D. Grishina, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 199 (1971) 1339.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    A. D. Grishina, Elektrokhimiya 10 (1974) 291.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    A. V. Kiselev, G. A. Kozlov, and V. I. Lygin, Zh. Fiz. Khim. 39 (1965) 1256.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    A. Marchand and J. Amiell, Carbon 8 (1970) 707.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    P. Delhaes and F. Carmona, Carbon 10 (1972) 677.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    L. M. Yakimenko, Proizvodstvo Khlora, Kausticheskoi Sody i Neorganicheskikh Khlorproduktov, Khimiya, Moscow, 1974.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    P. Drossbach and H. Hoff, Electrochim. Acta 11 (1966) 679.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    L. J. Janssen and J. G. Hoogland, Electrochim. Acta 15 (1970) 339.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    L. J. Janssen and J. G. Hoogland, Electrochim. Acta 15 (1970) 941.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    L. J. Janssen and J. G. Hoogland, Electrochim. Acta 15 (1970) 1667.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    L. I. Krishtalik and Z. A. Rotenberg, Zh. Fiz. Khim. 39 (1966) 328.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    L. I. Krishtalik and Z. A. Rotenberg, Zh. Fiz. Khim. 39 (1965) 907.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    R. G. Erenburg and L. I. Krishtalik, Elektrokhimiya 4 (1968) 923.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    V. A. Barsukov, E. G. Ivanov, and E. A. Berkman, in Sbornik Rabot po Khimiches-kim Istochnikam toka, Energiya, Leningrad. 1974, p. 180.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    M. Frants and A. L. Rotinyan, Elektrokhimiya 5 (1969) 923.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    B. Asizov and A. L. Rotinyan, Elektrokhimiya 8 (1972) 1849.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    L. I. Krishtalik and R. G. Erenburg, in Kinetika Slozhnykh Elektrokhimicheskikh Reaktsii, Ed. by V. E. Kazarinov, Nauka, Moscow, 1981, p. 178.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    J. T. Kim and J. Jorne, J. Electrochem. Soc. 124 (1977) 1473.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    V. L. Kubasov and G. I. Volkov, Elektrokhimiya 1 (1965) 1395.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Yu. A. Chizmadzhev, V. S. Markin, M. R. Tarasevich,and Yu. G. Chirkov, Mikrokinetika Protsessov v Poristykh Sredakh, Nauka, Moscow, 1971.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    L. I. Krishtalik, Elektrodyne Reaktsii. Mekhanizm Elementarnogo Akta, Nauka, Moscow, 1979.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Yu. B. Vasil’ev, L. S. Kanevskii, V. I. Lushnikov, and A. M. Skundin, Elektrokhimiya 13 (1977) 440.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    F. Hine, M. Yasuda, and M. Iwata, J. Electrochem. Soc. 121 (1974) 749.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    N. G. Bardina and L. I. Krishtalik, Elektrokhimiya 2 (1966) 216.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    N. G. Bardina and L. I. Krishtalik, Elektrokhimiya 2 (1966) 334.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    L. I. Krishtalik and Z. A. Rotenberg, Elektrokhimiya 2 (1966) 351. S7 G. N. Kokhanov and N. G. Milova, Elektrokhimiya 5 (1969) 93.Google Scholar
  87. 88.
    G. N. Kokhanov and N. G. Milova, Electrokhimiya 6 (1970) 73.Google Scholar
  88. 89.
    P. Drossbach and P. Schmittinger, Electrochim. Acta 11 (1966) 687.Google Scholar
  89. 90.
    Ngo Dai Viet, D. V. Kokoulina, and L. I. Krishtalik, Elektrokhimiya 8 (1972) 221.Google Scholar
  90. 91.
    Ngo Dai Viet, D. V. Kokoulina, and L. I. Krishtalik, Elektrokhimiya 8 (1972) 384.Google Scholar
  91. 92.
    V. S. Bagotskii, M. R. Tarasevich, and V. Yu. Filinovskii, Elektrokhimiya 5 (1969) 1218.Google Scholar
  92. 93.
    W. G. Berl, Trans. Electrochem. Soc. 83 (1943) 253.Google Scholar
  93. 94.
    M. O. Davies, M. Clark, E. Yeager, and F. Hovorka, J. Electrochem. Soc. 106 (1959) 56.Google Scholar
  94. 95.
    W. Vielstich, Z. Phys. Chem. N. F. 15 (1958) 409.Google Scholar
  95. 96.
    Ch. Fabjan, Monatsh. Chem. 108 (1977) 29.Google Scholar
  96. 97.
    N. N. Storchak and V. V. Sysoeva, Zh. Prikl. Khim. 42 (1969) 1289.Google Scholar
  97. 98.
    E. Yeager, P. Krause, and K. V. Rao, Electrochim. Acta 9 (1964) 1057.Google Scholar
  98. 99.
    S. N. Pobedinskii and A. A. Trofimenko, Elektrokhimiya 14 (1978) 1227.Google Scholar
  99. loo S. I. Andruseva, M. R. Tarasevich, and K. A. Radyushkina, Elektrokhimiya 13 (1977) 253.Google Scholar
  100. 101.
    M. R. Tarasevich, F. Z. Sabirov, A. P. Mertsalova, and R. K. Burshtein, Elektrokhimiya 4 (1968) 432.Google Scholar
  101. 102.
    A. L. Rotinyan, A. I. Anurova, and N. B. Dobrozdrakova, Elektrokhimiya 5 (1969) 1352.Google Scholar
  102. 103.
    M. R. Tarasevich, G. I. Zakharkin, and R. M. Smirnova, Elektrokhimiya 8 (1972) 627.Google Scholar
  103. 104.
    C. L. Hussey, T. M. Laher, and J. M. Achord, J. Electrochem. Soc. 127 (1980) 1484.Google Scholar
  104. 105.
    p S. Jain and S. Lal, Electrochim. Acta 27 (1982) 759.Google Scholar
  105. 106.
    F. Z. Sabirov and M. R. Tarasevich, Elektrokhimiya 5 (1969) 608.Google Scholar
  106. 107.
    M. Brésina and A. Hofmanova, Collect. Czech. Chem. Commun. 38 (1973) 985.Google Scholar
  107. 108.
    B. Lovrecek, M. Batinic, and J. Caja, Electrochim, Acta 28 (1983) 685.Google Scholar
  108. 109.
    M. R. Dausheva, M. R. Tarasevich, and S. I. Zhdanov, Elektrokhimiya 7 (1971) 165.Google Scholar
  109. 110.
    P. J. Taylor and A. A. Humffray. J. Electroanal. Chem. 64 (1975) 85. ‘ll M. Appel and A. J. Appleby, Electrochim. Acta 23 (1978) 1243.Google Scholar
  110. 112.
    M. R. Tarasevich, in Itogi Nauki i tekhniki. Elektrokhimiya. VINITI, Elektrokhimiya. 1983, Vol. 19 p. 171.Google Scholar
  111. 113.
    M. R. Tarasevich, A. Sadkowski and E. Yeager, in Comprehensive Treatise of Electrochemistry, Vol. 7, Ed. by B. E. Conway, J. O’M. Bockris, E. Yeager, S. U. M. Khan, and R. E. White, Plenum Press, New York, London, 1983, p. 305.Google Scholar
  112. 114.
    A. J. Appleby and J. Marie, Electrochim. Acta 24 (1979) 195.Google Scholar
  113. 115.
    G. V. Shteinberg, I. A. Kukushkina, V. S. Bogotskii, and M. R. Tarasevich, Elektrokhimiya 15 (1979) 527.Google Scholar
  114. 116.
    G. V. Shteinberg, I. A. Kukushkina, M. R. Tarasevich, and V. S. Bogotskii, Elektrokhimiya 17 (1981) 234.Google Scholar
  115. 117.
    M. R. Tarasevich and E. I. Khrushcheva, in Kinetika Slozhnykh Elektrokhimicheskikh Reaktsii, ed. by V. E. Kazarinov, Nauka, Moscow, 1981, 104.Google Scholar
  116. 118.
    I. Morkos and E. Yeager, Electrochim. Acta 15 (1970) 953.Google Scholar
  117. 119.
    C. Fabjan, Chem.-Ing.-Tech. 46 (1974) 917.Google Scholar
  118. 120.
    P. J. Taylor and A. A. Humffray, J. Electroanal. Chem. 64 (1975) 63.Google Scholar
  119. 121.
    N. M. Zagudaeva, V. S. Vilinskaya, and G. V. Shteinberg, Elektrokhimiya 13 (1982) 541.Google Scholar
  120. 122.
    V. V. Sysoeva, V. I. Gants, E. N..Smirnova, and N. N. Storchak, Zh. Prikl. Khim. 45 (1972) 550.Google Scholar
  121. 123.
    A. G. Voloshin, I. P. Kolesnikova, and S. D. Korolenko, Zh. Prikl. Khim. 49 (1976) 1801.Google Scholar
  122. 124.
    M. R. Tarasevich, F. Z. Sabirov, and R. K. Burshtein, Elektrokhimiya 7 (1971) 404.Google Scholar
  123. 125.
    V. S. Bogotskii and I. E. Yablokova, Zh. Fiz. Khim. 27 (1953) 1663.Google Scholar
  124. 126.
    M. R. Tarasevich, Elektrokhimiya 17 (1981) 1208.Google Scholar
  125. 127.
    V. S. Daniel-Bek and A. I. Anurova, Elektrokhimiya 3 (1967) 990.Google Scholar
  126. 128.
    G. I. Zakharkin, M. R. Tarasevich, and R. K. Burshtein, Elektrokhimiya 10 (1974) 1811.Google Scholar
  127. 129J.
    Balej, K. Balogh, and O. Spalek, Chem. Zvesti 30 (1976) 611.Google Scholar
  128. 130.
    I. I. Vasilenko, Khimiya i Khim. Tekhnol. 20 (1977) 866.Google Scholar
  129. 131.
    A. G. Voloshin and I. I. Kolesnikova, Elektrokhimiya 11 (1975) 1903.Google Scholar
  130. 132.
    O. Spalek, J. Balej, and K. Balogh, Collect. Czech. Chem. Commun. 42 (1977) 952. 133J. Balej, K. Balogh, P. Stopka, and O. Spalek, Collect. Czech. Chem. Commun. 45 (1980) 3249.Google Scholar
  131. 134.
    A. I. Anurova, V. S. Daniel-Bek, and A. L. Rotinyan, Elektrokhimiya 4 (1968) 815.Google Scholar
  132. 135.
    M. R. Tarasevich and G. I. Zakharkin, Elektrokhimiya 10 (1974) 1818.Google Scholar
  133. 136.
    S. Müller and R. Landsberg, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 70 (1966) 586.Google Scholar
  134. 137.
    P. Drossbach and J. Schulz, Electrochim. Acta 9 (1964) 1391.Google Scholar
  135. 138.
    M. P. J. Brennan and O. R. Brown, J. Appt Electrochem. 2 (1972) 43.Google Scholar
  136. 139.
    A. R. Despié, D. M. Drazie, G. A. Savié-Maglié, and R. T. Atanasoski, Creat. Chem. Acta 44 (1972) 79.Google Scholar
  137. 140.
    I. Rousar, J. Mostomsk9, S. Rajasekaran, and V. Cezner, Collect. Czech. Chem. Communs. 39 (1974) 1.Google Scholar
  138. 141.
    I. P. Voroshilov, N. N. Nechiporenko, and E. P. Voroshilova, Elektrokhimiya 10 (1974) 1378.Google Scholar
  139. 142.
    A. J. Appleby and B. Pichon, in Hydrogen Energy System, Ed. by T. N. Veziroglu and W. Seifritz, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1978, Vol. 2, p. 687.Google Scholar
  140. 143.
    K. A. Radyushkina, M. R. Tarasevich, O. A. Levina, and V. N. Andreev, Elektrokhimiya 18 (1982) 1312.Google Scholar
  141. 144.
    N. A. Urisson, G. V. Shteinberg, M. R. Tarasevich, V. S. Bagotskii, and N. M. Zagudaeva, Elektrokhimiya 19 (1983) 275.Google Scholar
  142. 145.
    S. I. Zhdanov, in Encyclopedia of Electrochemistry of the Elements, Ed. by A. Bard, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1975, Vol. 4, p. 276.Google Scholar
  143. 146.
    S. A. Anurov, N. V. Kel’tsev, V. I. Smola, and N. S. Torshechnikov, Usp. Khim. 46 (1977) 32.Google Scholar
  144. 147.
    A. P. Tomilov, M. Ya. Fioshin, and V. A. Smirnov, Elektrokhimicheskii Sintez Organicheskikh Veshchestv, Khimiya, Leningrad, 1976.Google Scholar
  145. 148.
    M. M. Baizer, Ed., Organic Electrochemistry, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1973.Google Scholar
  146. 149.
    L. G. Feoktistov, Ed., Elektrosintez Monomerov, Nauka, Moscow, 1980. Is° H. Schäfer and E. Steckhan, Angew. Chem. 81 (1969) 532.Google Scholar
  147. 151.
    D. Koch, H. Schäfer, and E. Steckhan, Chem. Ber. 107 (1974) 3640.Google Scholar
  148. 152.
    B. Zinger and J. Y. Becker, Electrochim. Acta 25 (1980) 791.Google Scholar
  149. 153.
    M. R. J. Brennan and O. R. Brown, J. Appl. Electrochem. 3 (1973) 231.Google Scholar
  150. 154.
    Z. F. Bezrukova, Yu. B. Vasil’ev, L. S. Kanevskii, E. P. Kovsman, V. I. Lushnikov, N. T. Presnova, R. G. Pryadkina, G. A. Tarkhanov, and V. D. Chekanova, Elektrokhimiya 12 (1976) 783.Google Scholar
  151. 155.
    W J. Koehl, Jr., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 86 (1964) 4686.Google Scholar
  152. 156.
    W. J. Koehl, J. Org. Chem. 32 (1967) 614.Google Scholar
  153. 157.
    J. G. Traynham and J. S. Dehn, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 89 (1967) 2139.Google Scholar
  154. 158.
    D. Ross and M. Finkelstein, J. Org. Chem. 34 (1969), 2923.Google Scholar
  155. 159.
    M. Ya. Fioshin, A. I. Kamneva, Sh. M. Itenberg, L. I. Kazakova, and Yu. A. Ershov, Khim. Prom. N4 (1963) 263.Google Scholar
  156. 160.
    M. P. J. Brennan and R. Brettle, J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 1 (1973) 257.Google Scholar
  157. 161.
    A. Kunugi, H. Urata, and S. Nagaura, Denki Kagaku 36 (1968) 237.Google Scholar
  158. 162.
    L. S. Kanevskii, Yu. B. Vasil’ev, N. T. Presnova, and E. P. Kovsman, Elektrokhimiya 12 (1976) 274.Google Scholar
  159. 163.
    L. S. Kanevskii and A. M. Skundin, in Kataliticheskie Reaktsii v Zhidkoi Faze, Nauka, KazSSR, Alma-Ata, 1978 p. 74.Google Scholar
  160. 164.
    V. I. Lushnikov, L. S. Kanevskii, and Yu. B. Vasil’ev, Elektrokhimiya 15 (1979) 1438.Google Scholar
  161. 165.
    R. M. Van Effen and D. H. Evans, J. Electroanai. Chem. 103 (1979) 383.Google Scholar
  162. 166.
    V. E. Kazarinov, G. A. Tedoradze, L. T. Gorokhova, and D. N. Bairamov, Elektrokhimiya 16 (1980) 269.Google Scholar
  163. 167.
    F. L. Lambert, B. L. Hasslinger, and R. N. Franz, J. Electrochem. Soc. 122 (1975) 737.Google Scholar
  164. 168.
    A. J. Bard and A. Merz, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 101 (1979) 2958.Google Scholar
  165. 169.
    N. I. Chakhov, Elektrokhimiya 18 (1982) 850.Google Scholar
  166. 170.
    H. M. Fox, F. N. Ruehlen, and W. V. Childs, J. Electrochem. Soc. 118 (1971) 1246.Google Scholar
  167. 171.
    V. A. Mukhtarov and E. A. Dzhafarov, in Novosti Elektrokhimii Organicheskikh Soedinenii. XI Vsesoyuz. Soveshch. po. Elektrokhimii Organicheskikh Soedinenii. Tez. Dokl., Novocherkassk, 1980, p. 144.Google Scholar
  168. 172.
    F. N. Ruehlen, G. B. Wills, and H. M. Fox, J. Electrochem. Soc. 111 (1964) 1107•.Google Scholar
  169. 173.
    G. A. Tedoradze, D. A. Ashurov, E. A. Ponomarenko, A. P. Tomilov, Yu. M. Sokolov, Yu. A. Yuzbekov, V. A. Paprotskaya, and N. B. Babaev, in Elektrosintez Monomerov, Ed. by L. G. Feoktistov. Nauka, Moscow, 1980, p. 209.Google Scholar
  170. 174.
    L. T. Gorokhova and D. N. Bairamov, in Novosti Elektrokhimii Organicheskikh Soedinenii. XI Vsesoyuz. Soveshch. po Elektrokhimii Organicheskikh Soedinenii. Tez. Dokl., Novocherkassk, 1980, p. 104.Google Scholar
  171. 175.
    M. R. Tarasevich, V. A. Bogdanovskaya, V. S. Bagotskii, S. D. Varfolomeev, A. I. Yaropolov, and I. V. Berezin, Elektrokhimiya 13 (1977) 892.Google Scholar
  172. 176.
    M. D. Ryan, A. Yueh, and W.-Y. Chen. J. Electrochem. Soc. 125 (1980) 1489.Google Scholar
  173. 177.
    O. S. Ksenzek, S. A. Petrova, and M. V. Kolodyazhny, Bioelectrochem. Bioenerg. 9 (1982) 167.Google Scholar
  174. 178.
    M. R. Tarasevich, S. N. Suslov, and A. A. Bogdanovskaya, Elektrokhimiya 20 (1984).Google Scholar
  175. 179.
    R. N. Adams, Anal. Chem. 48 (1976) 1126A.Google Scholar
  176. 180.
    V. Brabec and V. Mornstein, Biophys. Chem. 12 (1980) 159.Google Scholar
  177. 181.
    J. A. Reynaud, B. Malfoy, and P. Canesson, J. Electroanal. Chem. 114 (1980) 195. 182J. A. Reynaud and B. Malfoy, J. Electroanal. Chem. 114 (1980) 223.Google Scholar
  178. 183.
    M. Zh. Zhurinov, T. A. Imangaliev, Kh. A. Aslanov, Z. M. Muldakhmetov, and A. A. Abdramanova, in Novosti Elektrokhimii Organicheskikh Soedinenii. XI Vsesoyuz. Soveshch. po Elektrokhimii Organicheskikh Soedinenii. Tez. DokL, Novocherkassk 1980, p. 130.Google Scholar
  179. 184.
    M. Zh. Zhurinov, M. Ya. Fioshin, N. A. Prodkhod’ko, Kh. A. Aslanov, and B. A. Serikbaev, in Novosti Elektrokhimii Organicheskikh Soedinenii. XI Vsesoyuz. Soveschch. po Elektrokhimii Organicheskikh Soedinenii., Tez. Dokl, Novocherkassk, 1980, p. 131.Google Scholar
  180. 185.
    G. Dryhurst, Electrochemistry of Biological Molecules, Academic Press, New York, 1977.Google Scholar
  181. 186.
    D. L. Smith and P. J. Elving, Anal. Chem. 34 (1962) 930.Google Scholar
  182. 187.
    T. Jao, T. Wasa, and S. Musha, Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan 50 (1977) 2917.Google Scholar
  183. 188.
    A. C. Conway, R. N. Goyal, and G. Dryhurst, J. Electroanal. Chem. 123 (1981) 243.Google Scholar
  184. 189.
    A. Brajter-Toth, R. N. Goyal, M. Z. Wrona, T. Lacava, N. T. Nguyen, and G. Dryhurst, Bioelectrochem. Bioenerg. 8 (1981) 413.Google Scholar
  185. 190.
    R. N. Goyal, A. Brajter-Toth, and G. Dryhurst, J. Electroanal Chem. 131 (1982) 181.Google Scholar
  186. 191.
    P. Ledus and D. Thevenot, Bioelectrochem. Bioenerg. 1 (1974) 96.Google Scholar
  187. 192.
    R. D. Braun, K. S. V. Santhanam, and P. J. Elving, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 97 (1975) 2591.Google Scholar
  188. 193.
    W. J. Blaedel and R. A. Jenkins, Anal. Chem. 47 (1975) 1337.Google Scholar
  189. 194.
    J. Moiroux and P. J. Elving, Anal. Chem. 50 (1978) 1056.Google Scholar
  190. 193.
    J. Moiroux and P. J. Elving, J. Electroanal. Chem. 102 (1979) 93.Google Scholar
  191. 196.
    W. T. Bresnaham, J. Moiroux, Z. Samec, and P. J. Elving, Bioelectrochem. Bioenerg. 7 (1980) 125.Google Scholar
  192. 197.
    B. Janic and P. Elving, Chem. Rev. 68 (1968) 295.Google Scholar
  193. 198.
    L. Gorton and G. Johansson, J. Electroanal. Chem. 113 (1980) 151.Google Scholar
  194. 199.
    V. Brabec, Bioelectrochem. Bioenerg. 7 (1980) 69.Google Scholar
  195. 200.
    V. Brabec and G. Dryhurst, J. Electroanal Chem. 89 (1978) 161.Google Scholar
  196. 201.
    V. Brabec and I. Schindlerova, Bioelectrochem. Bioenerg. 8 (1981) 451.Google Scholar
  197. 202.
    J. A. Reynand, B. Malfoy, and A. Bere, Bioelectrochem. Bioenerg. 7 (1980) 595.Google Scholar
  198. 203.
    V. Brabec, Bioelectrochem. Bioenerg. 8 (1981) 437.Google Scholar
  199. 204.
    G. V. Lisichkin and A. Ya. loffa, Geterogennye Metallo-Kompleksnye Katalizatory, Khimiya, Moscow, 1981.Google Scholar
  200. 203.
    K. D. Snell and A. G. Keenan, Chem. Soc. Rev. 8 (1979) 259.Google Scholar
  201. 206.
    R. W. Murray, Acc. Chem. Res. 13 (1980) 135.Google Scholar
  202. 207.
    M. R. Tarasevich and V. A. Bogdanovskaya, in Topics in Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics, John Wiley & Sons, London, 1983, p. 261.Google Scholar
  203. 208.
    M. Yamana, R. Darby, H. P. Dhar, and R. E. White, J. Electroanal. Chem. 152 (1983) 261.Google Scholar
  204. 209J.
    Zagel, E. Yeager, and R. K. Sen, J. Electroanal. Chem. 83 (1977) 207.Google Scholar
  205. 210.
    J. P. Collman, M. Marrocco, P. Denisevich, C. Koval, and F. C. Anson, J. Electroanal. Chem. 101 (1979) 117.Google Scholar
  206. 211.
    K. Shigehara and F. C. Anson, J. Electroanal. Chem. 132 (1982) 107.Google Scholar
  207. 212.
    A. P. Brown, C. Koval, and F. C. Anson, J. Electroanal. Chem. 72 (1976) 379.Google Scholar
  208. 213.
    A. P. Brown and F. C. Anson, J. ElectroanaL Chem. 83 (1977) 203.Google Scholar
  209. 214.
    K. Pool and R. P. Buck, J. Electroanal. Chem. 97 (1979) 241.Google Scholar
  210. 213.
    M. R. Tarasevich, M. E. Vol’pin, V. A. Bogdanovskaya, S. B. Orlov, G. N. Novodarova, and E. M. Kolosova, Elektrokhimiya 17 (1981) 1327.Google Scholar
  211. 216.
    B. F. Watkins, J. R. Behling, E. Kariv, and L. L. Miller, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 97 (1975) 3549.Google Scholar
  212. 217.
    R. D. Rocklin and R. W. Murray, J. Electroanal. Chem. 100 (1979) 271.Google Scholar
  213. 218.
    C. A. Koval and F. C. Anson, Anal. Chem. 50 (1978) 223.Google Scholar
  214. 219.
    M. Sharp, Electrochim. Acta 23 (1978) 287.Google Scholar
  215. 220.
    B. E. Firth, L. L. Miller, M. Mitani, T. Rogers, J. Lennox, and R. W. Murray, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 98 (1976) 8271.Google Scholar
  216. 221.
    J. C. Lennox and R. W. Murray, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 100 (1978) 3710. 222G. I. Kozub and S. B. Orlov, Elektrokhimiya 19 (1983) 1401.Google Scholar
  217. 223.
    A. Bettelheim, R. J. H. Chan, and T. Kuwana, J. Electroanal. Chem. 99 (1979) 391.Google Scholar
  218. 224.
    E. Papire, V. T. Nguyen, and J. Donnet, Carbon 16 (1978) 141.Google Scholar
  219. 228.
    N. Oyama, K. B. Yap, and F. C. Anson, J. Electroanal. Chem. 100 (1979) 233.Google Scholar
  220. 226.
    M. F. Dautartas, J. F. Evans, and T. Kawana, Anal. Chem. 51 (1979) 104.Google Scholar
  221. 227.
    A. W. C. Lin, P. Yeh, A. M. Yacynych, and T. Kuwana, J. Electroanal. Chem. 84 (1977) 411.Google Scholar
  222. 228.
    C. M. Elliott and R. W. Murray, Anal. Chem. 48 (1976) 1247.Google Scholar
  223. 229.
    D. E. Untereker, J. C. Lennox, L. M. Wier, P. R. Moses, and R. W. Murray, J. Electroanal. Chem. 81 (1977) 309.Google Scholar
  224. 239.
    E. Theodoridou, J. O. Besenhard, and H. F. Fritz, J. Electroanal. Chem. 124 (1981) 87.Google Scholar
  225. 231.
    N. Oyama and F. C. Anson, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 101 (1979) 3450.Google Scholar
  226. 232.
    N. Oyama, T. Shimomura, K. Shigehara, and F. C. Anson, J. Electroanal. Chem. 112 (1980) 271.Google Scholar
  227. 233.
    M. R. Tarasevich, V. A. Bogdanovskaya, and S. B. Orlov, in XXII International Conf. on Coordination Chemistry, Budapest, 1982, Vol. 1, p. 234.Google Scholar
  228. 234.
    J. Zagal, P. Bindra, and E. Yeager, J. Electrochem. Soc., 127 (1980) 1506. 238 R. R. Durand and F. C. Anson, J. Electroanal. Chem. 134 (1982) 273.Google Scholar
  229. 236.
    A. Bettelheim, R. Parash, and D. Ozer, J. Electroanal. Chem. 129 (1982) 2247.Google Scholar
  230. 237.
    K. Doblhofer, D. Witte, and J. Ulstrup, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 82 (1978) 403.Google Scholar
  231. 238.
    P. Martigny and F. C. Anson, J. Electroanal. Chem. 139 (1982) 383.Google Scholar
  232. 239.
    M. R. Tarasevich, Bioelectrochem. Bioenerg. 6 (1972) 587.Google Scholar
  233. 248.
    S. D. Varfolomeev, V. A. Bogdanovskaya, A. I. Yaropolov, M. R. Tarasevich, and I. V. Berezin, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 240 (1978) 615.Google Scholar
  234. 241.
    M. R. Tarasevich, A. I. Yaropolov, V. A. Bogdanovskaya, and S. D. Varfolomeev, J. Electroanal. Chem. 104 (1979) 393.Google Scholar
  235. 242.
    A. I. Yaropolov, S. D. Varfolomeev, I. V. Berezin, V. A. Bogdanovskaya, and M. R. Tarasevich, FEBS Lett. 71 (1976) 306.Google Scholar
  236. 243.
    I. V. Berezin, A. S. Pobogin, V. V. Kupriyanov, and V. N. Luzikov, Bioorganich. Khim. 3 (1977) 989.Google Scholar
  237. 244.
    V. A. Bogdanovskaya, E. F. Gavrilov, M. R. Tarasevich, and D. I. Stom, Elektrokhimiya 16 (1980) 1596.Google Scholar
  238. 248.
    M. R. Tarasevich and V. A. Bogdanovskaya, Bioelectrochem. Bioenerg. 2 (1975) 69.Google Scholar
  239. 246.
    A. I. Yaropolov, T. K. Sukhomlin, A. L. Karyakin, S. D. Varfolomeev, and I. V. Berezin, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 262 (1982) 112.Google Scholar
  240. 247.
    A. I. Yaropolov, V. Malovik, S. D. Varfolomeev, and I. V. Berezin, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 249 (1979) 1399.Google Scholar
  241. 248.
    V. A. Bogdanovskaya, S. D. Varfolomeev, M. R. Tarasevich, and A. I. Yaropolov, Elektrokhimiya, 16 (1980) 763.Google Scholar
  242. 249.
    M. F. Dautartas and J. F. Evans, J. Electroanal. Chem. 109 (1980) 301. 288J. Zagal, C. Fierro, and R. Rozas, J. Electroanal. Chem. 119 (1981) 403.Google Scholar
  243. 281.
    J. H. Zagal, J. Electroanal. Chem. 109 (1980) 389.Google Scholar
  244. 282.
    J. Zagal, E. Villar, and S. Ureta-Zanartu, J. Electroanal. Chem. 135 (1982) 343.Google Scholar
  245. 253.
    Yu. Yu. Kulis, V. I. Razumas, and A. A. Malinauskas, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 245 (1979) 394.Google Scholar
  246. 254.
    J. Kulis, V. Rasumas, and A. Malinauskas, J. Electroanal. Chem. 116 (1980) 11.Google Scholar
  247. 255.
    R. R. Dogonadse, A. M. Kusnezov, and J. Ulstrup, J. Electroanal. Chem. 79 (1977) 267.Google Scholar
  248. 256.
    K. I. Zamaraev and R. Kh. Khairutdinov, Usp. Khim. 47 (1978) 992.Google Scholar
  249. 257.
    P. Burgmayer and R. W. Murray, J. Electroanal. Chem. 135 (1982) 335.Google Scholar
  250. 258.
    M.-C. Pham, G. Tourillon, P.-C. Lacaze, and J.-E. Dubois, J. Electroanal. Chem. 111 (1980) 385.Google Scholar
  251. 259.
    K. Doblhofer, W. Durr and M. Jauch, Electroehim. Acta 27 (1982) 677.Google Scholar
  252. 260.
    N. Oyama, S. Yamaguchi, Y. Nishiki, K. Tokuda, and H. Matsuda, J. Electroanal. Chem. 139 (1982) 371.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. R. Tarasevich
    • 1
  • E. I. Khrushcheva
    • 1
  1. 1.A. N. Frumkin Institute of ElectrochemistryAcademy of Sciences of the USSRMoscowUSSR

Personalised recommendations