Na+−K+-Activated ATPase and Non-Quantal/Cytoplasmic Release of Acetylcholine

  • E. S. Vizi
Part of the Advances in Behavioral Biology book series (ABBI, volume 25)


Essentially there are two hypotheses which attempt to explain how transmitters are released from axon terminals (cf. 14,16,20). Exocytosis assumes that transmitters are packed in vesicles which, after having fused with the membrane of the axon terminal, discharge their contents into the external cleft. The first observation of the location of a transmitter in vesicles at nerve endings dates back to 1952; Blaschko and Welch for noradrenaline (7) and Fatt and Katz for acetylcholine (ACh) (16). Another hypothesis is that the transmitter is released from the cytoplasm (7,13,27,28,38,39). However, none of them can explain how transmitters cross the membrane and what kind of membrane mechanism operates to make the membrane permeable to the transmitters.


Neuromuscular Junction Axon Terminal Transmitter Release Total Release Mepp Amplitude 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Baker, P.F. (1972): Prog. Biophys. Molec. Biol. 24:177–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Baker, P.F. and Blaustein, M.P. (1968): Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 150:167–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baker, P.F., Blaustein, M.P., Hodgkin, A.L. and Steinhardt, R. A. (1969): J. Physiol. (Lond.) 200:431–458.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Baker, P.F. and Crawford, A.C. (1975): J. Physiol. (Lond.) 247:209–226.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Birks, R.I. (1974): J. Neurocytol. 3:133–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Birks, R.I. and Cohen, M.W. (1968): Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B 170:381–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Blaschko, H. and Welch, A.D. (1953): N-S. Arch. 219:17–24.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Branisteanu, D.D., Proca, B. and Haulica, I.D. (1979): J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 209:31–37.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Burnstock, G. (1970): IN Smooth Muscle (eds) L. Bulbing and M.F. Shuba, Raven Press, New York, pp. 357–367.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Camody, J.I. (1978): Eur. J. Pharmacol. 47:457–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cooper, J. and Meyer, E.M. (this volume).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Douglas, W.W., Lywood, D.W. and Straub, R.W. (1961): J. Physiol. (Lond.) 156:515–522.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dunant, Y., Gautron, J., Israel, M., Lesbats, B. and Manaranche, R. (1972): J. Neurochem. 19:1987–2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dunant, Y. and Israel, M. (1979): Trends Neurosci. 2:30–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Elmquist, D. and Feldman, D.S. (1965): J. Physiol. (Lond.) 181:487–497.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fatt, P. and Katz, B. (1952): J. Physiol. (Lond.) 117:109–128.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Garcia, A.G. and Kirpekar, S.M. (1973): Brit. J. Pharmacol. Chemther. 47:729–747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gorio, A., Hurnblut, VJ.P. and Ceccarelli, B. (1978): J. Cell. Biol. 78:716–733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Grewaal, D.S. and Quastal, J.H. (1973): Biochem. J. 132:1–14.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Israel, M., Dunant, Y. and Ilanaranche, R. (1979): Prog. Neuro. Biol. 13:237–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Israel, Y., Kalant, H. and Laufer, K. (1965): Biochem. Phar. macol. 14:1803–1814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Katsurgai, T., Fukuski, Y. and Suzuki, T. (1978): Eur. J. Pharmacol. 47:407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Katz, B. and Miledi, R. (1965): The Release of Neural Trans mitter Substances, University Press, Liverpool.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Katz, B~. and Miledi, R. (1971): Proc. Roy. Soc. B 196:59–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lastowecka, A. and Trifaro, J. (1974): J. Physiol. (Lond.) 236:681–705.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lindmar, R. and Loffelholz, K. (1974): N-S. Arch. Pharmacol. 284:93–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Marchbanks, R.M. (1978): Trends Neurosci. 1:83–84.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Marchbanks, R.M. and Israel, M. (1971): J. Neurochem. 18:439–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Miledi, R., Molenaar, P.C. and Polak, R.L. (1977): Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B 197:285–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Nakazato, Y., Ohga, A. and Onoda, Y. (1978): J. Physiol. (Lond.) 278:45–47.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Paton, W.D.M., Vizi, E.S. and Zar, M.A. (1971): J. Physiol. (Lond.) 215:819–848.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Poulsen, J.H. (1974): Pflug. Arch. 350:281–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Quastel, D.M.J., Hackett, J.T. and Cooke, J.D. (1971): Science 172:1034–1036.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rendi, R. (1966): Biochim. Biophys. Acta 118:621–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Schwartz, A., Lindenmayer, G.E. and Allen, J.C. (1975): Pharmacol. Rev. 27:3–105.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Skou, J.C. (1960): Biochim. Biophys. Acta 42:6–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sun, A.Y. and Samorajski, T. (1970): J. Neurochem. 24:161–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tauc, L. (1979): Biochem. Pharmacol., 27:3493–3498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Tauc, L., Hoffmann, A., Tsuji, S., Hinzen, D.H. and Faille, L. (1974): Nature 250:496–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Vizi, E.S., (1972): J. Physiol. (Lond.) 226:95–117.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Vizi, E.S. (1975): IN Subcortical Mechanism and Sensorimotor Activities (ed) T.L. Frigyesi, Hans Huber, Bern, pp. 63–39.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Vizi, E.S. (1975): IN Cholinergic Mechanisms (ed) P.G. Waser, Raven Press, New York, pp. 199–211.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Vizi, E.S. (1977): J. Physiol. (Lond.) 267:261–280.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Vizi, E.S. (1978): Neuroscience 3:367–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Vizi, E.S. (1979): Prog. Neurobiol. 12:181–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Vizi, E.S. (1980) Neuroscience (in press).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Vizi, E.S. and Vyskocil, F. (1979):J. Physiol. 286:1–14.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Vyskocil, F. and Illes, P. (1977): Pflug. Arch. 370:295–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Zimmermann, H. (1979): Neuroscience 4: 1773–1804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. S. Vizi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PharmacologySemmelweis University of MedicineBudapestHungary

Personalised recommendations