Regulated Streams in Australia: The Murray-Darling River System

  • K. F. Walker

Abstract

Australia has an image, both at home and abroad, as a land of wide open spaces. The land area is nearly that of the conterminous United States, yet there are fewer than two people for each square kilometer, compared with 26 people/km2 in the U.S. The disparity is related to the comparative scarcity of Australia’s water resources. Given low rainfall and high evaporative losses, yearly runoff averages about 45 mm, only one-sixth the North American average. In one year Australia’s rivers together discharge a volume only two-thirds that conveyed by the Mississippi River. Australia is, in fact, the driest of the inhabited continents.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Australian Water Resources Council, 1975, “Review of Australia’s Water Resources 1975,” Aust. Gov. Publ. Serv., Canberra. Australian Water Resources Council, 1978, “Proceedings of the Water Planning Workshop 1978,” Aust. Gov. Publ. Serv., Canberra.Google Scholar
  2. Baker, B. W., and Wright, G. L., 1978, The Murray Valley: Its hydrologic regime and the effects of water development on the river, Proc. R. Soc. Viet., 90:103–110.Google Scholar
  3. Bishop, K. A., and Bell, J. D., 1978, Observations on the fish fauna below Tallowa Dam (Shoalhaven River, New South Wales) during river flow stoppages, Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res., 29:543–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bowerman, M. R., 1975, Important discoveries about native warm water fish, Aust. Fish., 34:3–8.Google Scholar
  5. Braithwaite, L. W., 1975, Managing waterfowl in Australia, Proc. Ecol. Sog. Aust., 8:107–128.Google Scholar
  6. Burns, F. L., 1977, Localized destratification of large reservoirs to control discharge temperatures, Prog. Water Tech., 9:53–63.Google Scholar
  7. Cadwallader, P. L., 1977, J. O. Langtry’s 1949–50 Murray River investigations, Fish. Wildl. Pap. Vict., 13.Google Scholar
  8. Cadwallader, P. L., 1978, Some causes of the decline in range and abundance of native fish in the Murray-Darling river system, Proc. R. Soc. Vict., 90:211–224.Google Scholar
  9. Cadwallader, P. L., and Rogan, P. L., 1977, The Macquarie perch, Macquaria australasica (Pisces:Percichthyidae), of Lake Eildon, Victoria, Aust. J. Ecol., 2:409–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Collet, K. O., 1978, The present salinity position in the River Murray Basin, Proo. R. Soc. Vict., 90:111–123.Google Scholar
  11. Conservation Council of Victoria, 1977, “River Improvement?,” Environment Awareness Publ. 2.Google Scholar
  12. Croome, R. L., Tyler, P. A., Walker, K. F., and Williams, W. D., 1976, A limnological survey of the River Murray in the Albury- Wodonga area, Search, 7:14–17.Google Scholar
  13. Davis, P. S., 1978, “Man and the Murray,” New South Wales Univ. Press, Sydney.Google Scholar
  14. Davis, T. L. O., 1977, Food habits of the freshwater catfish, Tandanus tandanus Mitchell, in the Gwydir River, Australia, and effects associated with impoundment of this river by the Copeton Dam, Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res., 28:455–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dexter, B. D., 1978, Silviculture of the river red gum forests of the central Murray floodplain, Proo. R. Soc. Vict., 90:175–191.Google Scholar
  16. Engineering and Water Supply Department, South Australia, 1978, “The South Australian River Murray Salinity Control Programme, Vols. 1–3,” Adelaide.Google Scholar
  17. Falter, C. M., 1978, Assessment of expected impact of diversion of saline groundwater and irrigation drainwater on phytoplankton of the River Murray, South Australia, p. 95–96, in: “The South Australian River Murray Salinity Control Programme, Vols. 1–3,” Eng. Water Supply Dep., South Australia, 1978, Adelaide.Google Scholar
  18. Frith, H. J., 1977, “Waterfowl in Australia,” Reed, Sydney.Google Scholar
  19. Frith, H. J., and Sawer, G., eds., 1974, “The Murray Waters. Man, Nature, and a River System,” Angus and Robertson, Sydney.Google Scholar
  20. Higginson, F. R., 1973, Soil erosion and siltation within the Murray Valley, in: “Pollution Problems of the River Murray,” Dep. Decentralization and Development, New South Wales, Sydney.Google Scholar
  21. Lake, J. S., 1967, Principal fishes of the Murray-Darling system, p. 192–213, in: “Australian Inland Waters and their Fauna: Eleven Studies,” A. H. Weatherley, ed., Aust. Natl. Univ. Press, Canberra.Google Scholar
  22. Lake, J. S., 1975, Fish of the Murray River, p. 213–224, in: “The Book of the Murray,” G. V. Lawrence and G. K. Smith, eds., Rigby, Adelaide.Google Scholar
  23. Lake, P. S., 1978, On the conservation of rivers in Australia, Aust. Soc. Lirnnol. News I., 16(2):24–26.Google Scholar
  24. Lawrence, G. V., and Smith, G. K., eds., 1975, “The Book of the Murray,” Rigby, Adelaide.Google Scholar
  25. Llewellyn, L. C., 1968, Tagging gives answers to fish growth queries, Fisherman (N.S.W.), 3:1–5.Google Scholar
  26. May, V., 1978, Areas of recurrence of toxic algae within Burrinjuck Dam, New South Wales, Australia, Telopea, 1:295–313.Google Scholar
  27. Mitchell, D. S., 1978, “Aquatic Weeds in Australian Inland Waters,” Aust. Gov. Publ. Serv., Canberra.Google Scholar
  28. Reynolds, F. R., 1976, Tagging important in River Murray fish study, Aust. Fish., 35:4–6; 22.Google Scholar
  29. Shiel, R. J., 1976, Associations of Entomostraca with weedbed habitats in a billabong of the Goulburn River, Victoria, Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res., 27:533–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Shiel, R. J., 1978, Zooplankton communities of the Murray-Darling system, Proc. R. Soe. Viet., 90:193–202.Google Scholar
  31. Shiel, R. J., 1979, Synecology of the Rotifera of the River Murray, South Australia, Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res., 30:255–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Smith, B. J., Malcolm, H. E., and Morison, P. B., 1977, Aquatic invertebrate fauna of the Mitta Mitta Valley, Victoria, Viet. Nat., 94:228–238.Google Scholar
  33. Tyler, P. A., 1974, Limnological studies, p. 29–61, in: “Biogeo-graphy and Ecology in Tasmania,” W. D. Williams, ed., Junk, The Hague.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tyler, P. A., and Buckney, R. T., 1974, Stratification and biogenic meromixis in Tasmanian reservoirs, Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res., 25:299–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Walker, K. F., and Hillman, T. J., 1977, “Limnological Survey of the River Murray in Relation to Albury-Wodonga, 1973–1976,” Albury-Wodonga Development Corporation and Gutteridge, Haskins and Davey, Albury.Google Scholar
  36. Walker, K. F., Hillman, T. J., and Williams, W. D., 1979, The effects of impoundment on rivers: An Australian case study, Vevh. Int. Verein. Lirmol., 20:1695–1701.Google Scholar
  37. Water Conservation and Irrigation Commission, New South Wales, 1975, “Water Resources of the Murray Valley within New South Wales,” Sydney.Google Scholar
  38. Williams, W. D., 1967, The changing limnological environment in Victoria, p. 240–251, in: “Australian Inland Waters and their Fauna,” A. H. Weatherley, ed., Aust. Natl. Univ. Press, Canberra.Google Scholar
  39. Williams, W. D., 1973, Man-made lakes and the changing limnological environment in Australia, p. 495–499, in: “Man-Made Lakes: Their Problems and Environmental Effects,” W. C. Ackermann, G. F. White, and E. B. Worthington, eds., Am. Geophys. Union, Washington.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. F. Walker
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of AdelaideAustralia

Personalised recommendations