Stream Regulation in North America

  • Jack A. Stanford
  • James V. Ward


The mainstream rivers of North America once guided steamships and fishes inland from the oceans to the confluence of major tributaries. These side-channels presented the travelers with profound alternatives for maximizing (or minimizing) their fitness. Some routes gave way to prosperity, others terminated at insurmountable barriers.


Stream Regulation River Segment South Fork Instream Flow North Fork 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bentley, W.W., and Raymond, H.L., 1976, Delayed migrations of yearling chinook salmon since completion of lower monumental and Little Goose Dams on the Snake River, Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 105:422–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Berkowitz, D. A., and Squires, A. M., 1969, “Power Generation and Enviromental Changes,” MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  3. Boehmer, R.J., 1973, Ages, lengths, and weights of paddlefish caught in Gavins Point Dam tailwaters, Nebraska, Proc. S.D. Acad. Sci., 52:140–146.Google Scholar
  4. Cloud, T. J. Jr. and Stewart K. W., 1974a, The drift of mayflies (Ephemeroptera) in the Brazos River, Texas, Kansas Entomol. Soc., 47(3):379–396.Google Scholar
  5. Cloud, T. J. Jr. and Stewart, K..W., 1974b, Seasonal fluctuations and periodicity in the drift of caddisfly larvae (Trichoptera) in the Brazos River, Texas Entomol. Soc. Am. 67:805–811.Google Scholar
  6. Cummins, K. W., 1974, Structure and function of stream ecosystems, BioScience 24:631–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dolan, R., Hayden, A., Howard, A., and Johnson, R., 1977, Environmental management of the Colorado River within the Grand Canyon, Environmental Management 1:391–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dolan, R., Howard, A., and Gallenson, A., 1974, Man’s impact on the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, Am. Sci., 62:392–401.Google Scholar
  9. Dudley, R.G., and Golden, R. T., 1974, Effect of a hypolimnion discharge on growth of Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) in the Savannah River, Georgia, School of Forest Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, and Environmental Resources Center, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia.Google Scholar
  10. Edwards, R.J., 1978, The effect of hypolimnion releases on fish distribution and species diversity, Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 107:71–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Efford, I. E., 1975, Assessment of the impact of hydro-dams, J. Fish. Res. Board Can., 32:196–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ehrlich, P. R., Ehrlich, A. H., and Holden, J. P., 1977, “Ecoscience: Population, Resources Environment,” W. H. Freeman, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  13. Fraser, J.C., 1972, Regulated stream discharge for fish and other aquatic resources: An annotated bibliography, FAO Fish. Tech. Pap., 112.Google Scholar
  14. Friberg, D.V., 1972, Paddlefish abundance and harvest within a population lacking recruitment, Big Bend Dam Tailwaters, 1969071, Job Completion Rept., S.Dak. Dept. Game Fish Parks, Pierre, S.Dak.Google Scholar
  15. Geen, G.H., 1974, Effects of hydroelectric development in Western Canada on aquatic ecosystems, J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 31:913–927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Geen, G. H., 1975, Ecological consequence of the proposed Moran Dam on the Fraser River, J. Fish. Res. Board. Can., 32:126–135.Google Scholar
  17. Geraghty, J.H., Miller, D.W., Van Der Leeden, F., and Troise, F. L., 1973, “Water Atlas of the United States,” Wat. Info. Centr. Publ. Port Washington, N.Y.Google Scholar
  18. Gill, D., 1971, Damming the Mackenzie: A theoretical assessment of the long-term influence of river impoundment on the ecology of the Mackenzie River Delta, Proc. Peace-Athabaska Delta Symposium, Univ. Alberta, Edmonton.Google Scholar
  19. Gore, J.A., 1978, A technique for predicting in-stream flow requirements of benthic macroinvertebrates, Freshwater Biol. 8:141–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hagen, R. M., and Roberts, E.B., 1973, Ecological impacts of water storage and diversion projects, in: “Environmental Quality and Water Development,” Goldman, C.R., McEvoy, J., and Richardson, P.J., eds, W.H. Freeman, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  21. Hanzel, D.A., 1976, The seasonal area and depth distribution of fish populations in Flathead Lake, Job Performance Reports, Mt. Dept. Fish and Game, Kalispell, Mt.Google Scholar
  22. Hayes, E.T., 1979, Energy resources available to the United States, 1985 to 2000, Science 203:233–239.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Hendricks, D. W., Asce, M., and Bluestein, M.H., 1976, Response of South Platte to effluent limitations, Proc. Am. Soc. Civ. Eng. 102:745–768.Google Scholar
  24. Hoffman, C.E., and Kilambi, R. V., 1971, Environmental changes produced by cold-water outlets from three Arkansas reservoirs. Publ. No. 5, Wat. Res. Centr. Univ. Ark. Payetteville, Ark.Google Scholar
  25. Hubbs, C., and Pigg, J., 1976, The effects of impoundments on threatened fishes of Oklahoma, Ann. Okla. Acad. Sci. 5:133–177.Google Scholar
  26. Krizek, R. J., Osallany, S.C., and Kazadi, G. M., eds, 1971, “Pumped storage development and its environmental effects,” Am. Wat. Resour. Assoc. Series No. 15, Urbana, Ill.Google Scholar
  27. McClure, R. G., and Stewart, K. W., 1976, Life cycle and production of the mayfly Choroterpes (Neochoroterpes) mexicanus Allen (Ephemeroptera:Leptophlebiidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 69:134–144.Google Scholar
  28. Netboy, A., 1974, “The Salmon: Their Fight for Survival,” Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, 613p.Google Scholar
  29. Orsborn, J. F., and Allman, C. H., eds., 1976, “Instream Flow Needs”, Am. Fish. Soc., Bethesda Maryland. Vol. 2.Google Scholar
  30. Pacific Northwest River Basin Commission, 1972, “Instream Flow Requirement Workshop”, Vancouver, B.C.Google Scholar
  31. Poole, W.C., and Stewart, K.W., 1976, The vertical distribution of macrobenthos within the substratum of the Brazos River, Texas. Eydrobiologia 50:151–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rhame, R. E., and Stewart, K. W., 1976, Life cycles and food habits of three Hydropsychidae (Trichoptera) species in the Brazos River, Texas, Am. Entomol. Soc., 102:65–99.Google Scholar
  33. Richmond, M. C., and Zimmerman, E. G., 1978, Effect of temperature on activity of allozymic forms of supernatant malate dehydrogenase in the Red Shiner, Notropis lutrensis, Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 61B:415–419.Google Scholar
  34. Robinson, W. L., 1978, The Columbia: a river system under seige (part one of two) Oregon Wildlife, 33:3–12.Google Scholar
  35. Stanford, J. A., 1979, The Foothills Project: comments on inadequacies of environmental impact analyses and evaluation of alternative actions, EPA Research, Series Publ. (in press).Google Scholar
  36. Stanford, J. A., and Gaufin, A. R., 1974, Hyporheic communities of two Montana Rivers, Science, 185:700–702.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Stanford, J. A., and Gaufin, A. R., in press, Ecology and life histories of Plecoptera in the Flathead Rivers, Montana, Arch. Hydrobiol. Suppl. Google Scholar
  38. Stanford, J. A., and Hauer, F. R., 1978, Preliminary observations on the ecological effect of flow regulation in the Flathead River, Montana, Rept. U.S. Bureau Reclamation, Boise, Idaho.Google Scholar
  39. Stanford, J. A., and Potter, D. S., 1976, Limnology of the Flathead Lake-River ecosystem, Montana: a perspective, in: “Proc. of the Symposium on Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecological Studies of the Northwest”, Soltero, R., ed., Eastern Washington State College Press, Cheney.Google Scholar
  40. Stanford, J. A., and Reed, E. B., 1974, A basket sampling technique for quantifying riverine macrobenthos, Wat. Res. Bull. 10:470–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Stewart, K. W., Friday, G. P., and Rhame, R. E., 1973, Food habits of hellgrammite larvae, Corydalus cornutus (Megaloptera:Coryda-lidae) in the Brazos River, Texas, Annal. Entomol. Soc. Am. 66:959–963.Google Scholar
  42. Townsend, G. H., 1975, Impact of the Bennett Dam on the Peace-Athabaska delta, J. Fish. Res. Board. Can., 32:171–176.Google Scholar
  43. U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1973, Brazos River Basin, Texas, Natural salt pollution study, Dept. of U.S. Army Engr. Dist., Ft. Worth, Texas.Google Scholar
  44. U. S. Bureau of Land Management, 1978, “The Proposed Foothill Project. Final Environmental Impact Statement”. Department of Interior. Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  45. U. S. Federal Power Commission, 1976, “Hydroelectric Power Resources of the United States,” FPC-P43, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  46. U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1976, “U.S. Reservoir Inventory, National Reservoir Research Program,” Fayetteville, Ark.Google Scholar
  47. Vaught, G. L. and Stewart, K. W., 1974, The life History and ecology of the stonefly Neoperla clymene (Newman) (Plecoptera: Perlidae) Annal. Entomol. Soc. Am., 67:167–178.Google Scholar
  48. Wade, D. T., White, R. G., and Mate, S., 1978, A study of fish and aquatic macroinvertebrate fauna in the South Fork Boise River below Anderson Ranch Dam, Idaho Cooperative Fishery Research Unit, Univ. of Idaho; Idaho Dept.. Fish and Game.Google Scholar
  49. Ward, J. V., 1974, A temperature-stressed stream ecosystem below a hypolimnial release mountain reservoir, Arch. Hydrobiol., 74:247–275.Google Scholar
  50. Ward, J. V., 1975a, Bottom fauna-substrate relationships in a northern Colorado trout stream: 1945 and 1974, Ecology, 56:1429–1434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ward, J. V., 1975b, Downstream fate of Zooplankton from a hypolimnial release mountain reservoir, Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol., 19:1798–1804.Google Scholar
  52. Ward, J. V., 1976a, Effects of thermal constancy and seasonal temperature displacement on community structure of stream macroinvert-ebrates, in “Thermal Ecology II,” Esch, G. W., and McFarlane, R. W., eds., ERDA Symposium Series (CONF-750425).Google Scholar
  53. Ward, J. V., 1976b, Comparative limnology of differentially regulated sections of a Colorado mountain river, Arch. Hydrobiol., 78:319–342.Google Scholar
  54. Ward, J. V., 1976c, Effects of flow pattern below large dams on stream benthos: a review, “Instream Flow Needs Symposium, Vol. II,” Orsborn, J. F., and Allman, C.F., eds. Am Fish. Soc. Google Scholar
  55. Ward, J. V., and Short, R. A., 1978, Macroinvertebrate community structure of four special lotic habitats in Colorado, U.S.A., Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol., 20:1382–1387.Google Scholar
  56. Wesche, T. A., 1974, Relationship of discharge reductions to available trout habitat for recommending suitable streamflows, Water Resources Research Institute, University of Wyoming.Google Scholar
  57. Wiltzius, W. J., 1978, Some factors historically affecting the distribution and abundance of fishes in the Gunnison River, Final report, Colorado Div. Wildlife, Fort Collins, Colo.Google Scholar
  58. Zimmerman, E. G., and Richmond, M. C, in press, Heterosis at an enzyme locus in fish inhabiting a thermally coarse-grained environment, Trans. Am. Fish Soc. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jack A. Stanford
    • 1
    • 2
  • James V. Ward
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Dept. Biological SciencesNorth Texas State UniversityDentonUSA
  2. 2.Dept. Zoology and EntomologyColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA

Personalised recommendations