Polymer Surface Analysis: Conclusions and Expectations

  • J. D. Andrade


We have now examined twelve chapters and a wide variety of methods and techniques for probing polymer surfaces and their interfaces in various environments.


Polymer Surface Total Internal Reflection Plasma Polymerization Auger Microscopy Ruthenium Tetroxide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    K. Keller, ed., Guidelines for Physicochemical Characterization of Biomaterials, NIH Publ. No. 80–2186, September, 1980. A revised version of this report is in press.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. D. Andrade, Surface analysis of materials for medical devices and diagnostic products, Med. Dev. Diag. Ind. 2, 22–23 (June, 1980).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    W. C. McCrone and J. G. Delly, The Particle Atlas, 2nd ed., Vols. 1–3, Ann. Arbor Science Publ., Ann Arbor, Michigan (1973).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    D. Coleman, J. Lawson, and W. J. Kolff, Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of the surfaces of artificial hearts, Artificial Organs 2, 166–172 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    B. C. Cope, Optical and Electron Microscopy, in: Surface Analysis and Pretreatment of Plastics and Metals (D. M. Brewis, ed.), pp. 95–119, Applied Publ., London (1982).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    S. Y. Hobbs, Polymer Microscopy, J. Macromol. Sci., Rev. C19, 221–265 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    D. A. Thomas, Morphology characterization of multiphase polymers by electron microscopy, J. Polym. Sci. Symp. 60, 189–200 (1977).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    S. Y. Hobbs and V. H. Watkins, Use of chemical contrast in the SEM analysis of polymer blends, J. Polym. Sci. Phys. 20, 651–658 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    J. S. Trent, J. I. Scheinbeim, and P. R. Couchman, Ruthenium tetraoxide staining of polymers for electron microscopy, Macromolecules 16, 589–598 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. D. Andrade, D. L. Coleman, and D. E. Gregonis, Characterization of polymer surface morphology by scanning electron spectroscopy using backscattered electron imaging, Makromol. Chem., Rapid Commun. 1, 101–104 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    O. Johari, ed., Scanning Electron Microscopy, SEM, Inc., P.O. Box 66507, AMF O’Hare (Chicago), III. 60666.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    A. Benninghoven, Surface investigation of solids by static SIMS, Surface Sci. 35, 427–457 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    G. Muller, Surface analysis ofinsulating materials by SIMS, Appl. Phys. 10, 317–324(1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    C. P. Hunt, C. T. H. Studdart, and M. P. Seah, Surface analysis of insulators by SIMS, Surface Interface Analysis 3, 157–165 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    W. L. Baun, Ion beam methods for the surface characterization of polymers, Pure Appl. Chem. 54, 323–336 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    G. D. Tantsyrev, M. I. Povolotskaya, and N. A. Kleimenov, Fluorine-containing copolymers by SIMS, Polym. Sci. USSR 19, 2361–2370 (1977), and papers cited therein.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. Gettings and A. J. Kenloch, Polysiloxane/metal oxide interfaces, J. Mater. Sci. 12, 2511–2518 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    J. A. Gardella and D. M. Hercules, Static SIMS of polymer systems, Anal. Chem. 52, 226–232 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    J. A. Gardella, Jr. and D. M. Hercules, Comparison of static SIMS, ISS, and XPS for surface analysis of acrylic polymers, Anal. Chem. 53, 1879–1884 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. E. Campana, J. J. de Corpo, and R. J. Colton, Characterization of polymeric thin films by low-damage SIMS, Applic. Surface Sci. 8, 337–342 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    D. Briggs and A. B. Wooton, Analysis of polymer surfaces by SIMS—1. Practical problems, Surface Interface Analysis 4, 109–112 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    D. Briggs, Analysis of polymer surfaces by SIMS—2. Fingerprint spectra, Surface Interface Analysis 4, 151–155 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    D. E. Newbury, Quantitative analysis by SIMS, in: Quantitative Surface Analyses of Materials (N. S. McIntyre, ed.), pp. 127–149, ASTM STP, 643 Amer. Soc. Testing and Materials (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    A. Benninghoven and W. K. Sichtermann, Biologically important compounds by SIMS, Anal. Chem. 50, 1180–1184(1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    M. S. Burns, SIMS in biological research, J. Microscopy 127, Part 3, 237–258 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    D. Briggs, Analysis of polymer surfaces by SIMS—3, Surface Interface Analysis 5, 113–118 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    T. M. Buck, Low-energy ISS, in Methods of Surface Analysis (A. W. Czanderna, ed.), pp. 75–102, Elsevier Scientific, Amsterdam (1975).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    E. Taglauer and W. Heiland, ISS, in: Applied Surface Analysis (T. L. Barr and L. E. Davis, eds.), pp. 111–124, ASTM STP 699, Amer. Soc. Testing and Materials, (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    W. L. Baun, ISS, Surface Interface Analysis 3, 243–250 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    A. C. Miller, A. W. Czanderna, H. H. G. Jellinek, and H. Kachi, ISS of polypropylene on CuO films, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 85, 244–255 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    A. T. DiBenedetto and D. A. Scola, S-glass/polysulfone adhesive failure Using ISS and SIMS, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 74, 150–162 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    A. T. DiBenedetto and D. A. Scola, S-glass/polymer interfaces using ISS and SIMS, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 64, 480–500 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    G. R. Sparrow and H. E. Mismash, Surface analysis of polymer and glass, in: Quantitative Surface Analysis of Materials (N. S. McIntyre, ed.), pp. 164–181, ASTM STP 643, Amer. Soc. Testing and Materials (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    H. T. Jonkman, J. Michl, R. N. King, and J. D. Andrade, Low-temperature positive SIMS of organic solids, Anal. Chem. 50, 2078–2082 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    B. D. Ratner, P. K. Weathersby, A. S. Hoffman, M. A. Kelly, and L. H. Scharpen, Radiation-grafted hydrogels studied by ESCA, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 22, 643–664 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    O. H. Griffith, G. H. Lesch, G. F. Rempfer, G. B. Birrell, C. A. Burke, D. W. Schlosser, M. H. Mallon, G. B. Lee, R. G. Stafford, P. C. Jost, and T. B. Marriott, Photoelectron microscopy: A new approach to mapping organic and biological surfaces, Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. USA 69, 561–565 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    O. H. Griffith, G. F. Rempter, and G. M. Lesch, Photoelectron microscope for study of biological specimens, Scanning Electron Microscopy/1981/II, 123–130 (1981).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    L. Wegmann, Photo-emission electron microscope, J. Microscopy 96, Part 1, 1–23 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    G. Beamson, H. Q. Porter, and D. W. Turner, Photoelectron spectromicroscopy, Nature 290, 556–561 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    I. R. Plummer, H. Q. Porter, and D. W. Turner, Photoelectron spectroscopy and microscopy, J. Molec. Struct. 79, 146–162 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    I. R. Plummer, H. Q. Porter, D. U. Turner, A. J. Dixon, K. Gehring, and M. Keenylside, Soft X-rays and fast atoms as image generators in photoelectron microscopy, Nature 303, 599–601 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    N. Gurker, M. F. Ebel, and H. Ebel, Imaging XPS principles, Surface Interface Analysis 5, 12–19 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    C. T. Hovland, Scanning ESCA, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 274–275 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Y. Nishijima, Fluorescence methods in polymer science, J. Polym. Sci., 31, 353–373 (1970).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    H. Morawetz, Applications of fluorimetry to synthetic polymer studies, Science 203, 405–410 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    K. Knutson and M. Reichert, Total Internal Reflection Spectroscopy, Plenum Press, in press (1985).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    J. R. Rasmussen, E. R. Stedronsky, and G. M. Whitesides, Functional groups on the surface of low-density polyethylene, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 99, 4736–4756 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    D. E. Gregonis, R. Hsu, D. E. Buerger, L. M. Smith, and J. D. Andrade, Wettability of polymers and hydrogels, in: Macromolecular Solutions (R. B. Seymour and G. A. Stahl, eds.), pp. 120–133, Pergamon Press, New York (1982).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    D. T. Clark and W. T. Feast, eds., Polymer Surfaces, Wiley, New York (1978).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    D. H. Brewis, ed., Surface Analysis and Pretreatment of Plastics and Metals, Applied Science Publ. London (1982).Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    H. Yasuda and M. Gazicki, Biomedical applications of plasma polymerization and plasma treatment of polymer surfaces, Biomaterials 3, 68–77 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    M. Shen and A. T. Bell, eds., Plasma Polymerization, ACS Symp. Ser. 108, (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    P. M. Triolo and J. D. Andrade, Surface modifications and evaluation of some commonly used catheter materials, J. Biomed. Materials Res. 17, 129–147 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Anonymous, Modified culture plates improve cell growth, Chem. Eng. News, p. 43, December 20, 1982.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    S. L. Regen, P. Kirszensztejn, and A. Singh, Polymer-supported membranes, Macromolecules 16, 335–337 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    R. H. Muller, Principles of ellipsometry, Adv. Electrochem. Elecirochem. Eng. 9, 167–222 (1973).Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    D. E. Aspnes, Spectroscopic ellipsometry of solids, in: Optical Properties of Solids: New Developments (B. O. Seraphin, ed.), pp. 800–876, North-Holland, Amsterdam (1976).Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    P. S. Hauge, Recent developments in instrumentation in ellipsometry, Surface Sci. 96, 108–140 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    LAMMA Symposium, Fresenius, Z. Anal. Chem. 308(3), 193–315 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    F. Adar, M. LeClercq, and R. E. Grayzel, Industrial applications of micro Raman analyses, Am. Lab., pp. 56–65, March 1982.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    G. J. Rosasco, Raman microprobe spectroscopy, Adv. Infrared Raman Spectrosc. 7, 223–282 (1982).Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    P. Dhamelincourt, F. Wallart, M. Leclercq, A. T. N’Guyen, and D. O. Landon, Laser Raman molecular microprobe, Anal. Chem. 41, 414A-421A (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    O. Auciello, Ion interaction with solids: Surface Texturing, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 19, 841–867 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    D. W. Dwight and W. M. Riggs, Fluoropolymer surface studies, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 47, 650–660 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. D. Andrade
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Bioengineering and Materials Science and Engineering College of EngineeringUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA

Personalised recommendations