The State of the Carbon Atom in Transition-Metal Carbides
The Kα band of carbon, in carbides of the transition metals of groups IV, V, and VI and in diamond and graphite has been measured by means of an ultralong-wave x-ray spectrometer with diffraction grating. The width of this band in the carbide spectra was considerably less than in pure carbon, and there was no fine structure. In all of the carbides there is a chemical shift of the CKα band in the short-wave direction relative to its position in graphite, amounting on average to 1.5–2.0 eV. In relation to the position in diamond this shift is computed to be a few tenths of an electron volt and it takes place in the long-wave direction. From the analysis of the spectra and a comparison of them with data based on theoretical calculations and physical properties, a number of conclusions are drawn in regard to the state of the carbon atom in refractory carbides, the nature of its interaction with the valence band of the b-metals, and the magnitude and direction of charge transfer in the carbides.
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