Advertisement

Non-Equilibrium Effects Seen in Molecular Dynamics Calculations of Shock Waves in Solids

  • Franklin E. Walker
  • Arnold M. Karo
  • John R. Hardy
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSB, volume 116)

Abstract

In a number of experiments1–3 carried out to study the effects of shock waves in condensed materials (particularly in chemical explosives), we found evidence for the mechanical fracture of covalent bonds in or very near the shock fronts which produced free atoms and free radicals, as well as other thermally-activated atomic and molecular species. Scrutiny of the streak and framing camera records obtained in these experiments led us, with other analysis, to the formulation of a new concept of the shock initiation of explosives.4,5 To obtain some corroboration of this concept and to elucidate the microscopic processes occurring in the shock, we completed computer modeling and molecular dynamics analysis of the experiments.

Keywords

Shock Front Vibrational Energy Host Lattice Shock Loading Rotational Energy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    F. E. Walker and R. J. Wasley, Initiation of nitromethane with relatively long-duration, low-amplitude shock waves, Combustion and Flame 15:233 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    F. E. Walker and R. J. Wasley, Initiation patterns produced in explosives by low-pressure, long-duration shock waves, Combustion and Flame 22:53 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    F. E. Walker, Initiation and detonation studies in sensitized nitromethane, Acta Astronautica 6:807 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    F. E. Walker and R. J. Wasley, A general model for the shock initiation of explosives, Propellants and Explosives 1:73 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    F. E. Walker, Quantum mechanics and molecular dynamics calculations provide new evidence for a free radical shock initiation model, Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics 7:2 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. M. Karo, J. R. Hardy, and F. E. Walker, Theoretical studies of shock-initiated detonations, Acta Astronautica 5:1041 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. R. Hardy, A. M. Karo, and F. E. Walker, The molecular dynamics of shock and detonation phenomena in condensed matter, Progress in Aeronautics and Astronautics 75, J. R. Bowen, ed., American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (1981).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. M. Karo and J. R. Hardy, The study of fast shock-induced dissociation by computer molecular dynamics, Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Fast Reactions in Energetic Systems, C. Capellos and R. F. Walker, eds., D. Reidel Publishing Co., Dordrecht-Holland, Boston, USA (1981).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    P. Harris and H. N. Presles, Comparison of the optical reflectivity of a shock front in liquid water and in liquid nitromethane, U.S. Army Armament Research and Development Command, Dover, N.J., Technical Report ARLCD-TR-82025 (November 1982).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    F. E Walker, Description of a shock-wave velocity barrier, Propellants and Explosives 6:15 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Franklin E. Walker
    • 1
    • 2
  • Arnold M. Karo
    • 1
    • 2
  • John R. Hardy
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Lawrence Livermore National LaboratoryLivermoreUSA
  2. 2.Behlen Laboratory of PhysicsUniversity of NebraskaLincolnUSA

Personalised recommendations