The use of direct current electricity to increase the rate of dialysis of electrolytes or to produce demineralized water from potable water has been known for about 100 years. Early cells used three compartments between a single pair of electrodes, the compartments being separated from each other by (porous) diaphragms. The latter were essentially neutral and not intrinsically electrically conducting. Electrode reactions were important to this variety of electrodialysis which might better be regarded as a double electrometathesis, anions in the central electrodialysis compartment being replaced by hydroxide from the cathode compartment, cations by hydrogen ions from the anode compartment. It was noted that the choice of diaphragms affected the ultimate pH in the central compartment. Such three compartment ED cells were sold before World War II for water demineralization.
KeywordsSodium Chloride Solution Cheese Whey Quaternary Ammonium Group Direct Electric Current Bipolar Membrane
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 2.J. Wilson, ed., Demineralization by Electrodialysis (Butterworths Scientific Publ., London) 1960.Google Scholar
- 3.Clarke, J.T., U.S. Pats. 2,730,768; 2,780,604; 2,800,445.Google Scholar
- 7.Leite, F.B., U.S. Pats. 3,562,139 and 3,654,125.Google Scholar
- 8.Dege, G.J. et al., U.S. Pat. 4,024,043.Google Scholar
- 9.Chang, Y. (Ph.D. Thesis, Columbia University, New York) 1979.Google Scholar
- 1.Helfferich, F., Ion Exchange (McGraw-Hill, New York) 1962.Google Scholar
- 2.Kate, W., Electrodialysis preparation of boiler feed and other demineralized waters. Proc. Am. Power Conf. 33 (1971) 830–40; Electrodialysis for low TDS waters. Ind. Water Eng. June/July (1971).Google Scholar
- 4.Mason, E. et al., Design of electrodialysis equipment. Chem. Eng. Prog. Symp. Ser. 55 (1959) 173–89.Google Scholar
- 5.McRae, W. “Electrodialysis” in Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 3rd ed., Vol. 8 (Wiley, New York) 1978–1984, pp. 725 et seq.; “Electrodialysis” Chap. 8 in Desalination Technology, A. Porteous, ed. (Applied Science, London) 1983.Google Scholar
- 6.Shaffer, L. et al., “Electrodialysis” Chap. IV in Principles of Desalination, K.S. Spiegler, ed. (Academic Press, New York) 1966.Google Scholar
- 7.Solt, G., “Electrodialysis” Chap. 6 in Membrane Separation Processes, P. Meares, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam) 1976; “Electrodialysis” Chap. 12 in Industrial Electrochemical Processes, A. Kuhn, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam) 1971.Google Scholar
- 8.Spiegler, K. “Electrodialysis” in Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook, R. Perry et al., eds., 6th ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York) 1984, pp. 17–37.Google Scholar