Application of Electrochemical Ozone Generators in Ultrapure Water Systems
Manufacturing processes in the microelectronic, pharmaceutical and related industries need large quantities of purified water. While classical ion exchange combined with membrane desalination processes, such as reverse osmosis (RO) or electrodialysis (ED), is unproblematic in yielding very low levels of ionic impurities, the efficient elimination of non ionic trace impurities still causes problems in ultrapure water plants. The non ionic impurities are normally classified as TOC (Total Organic Carbon = the sum of dissolved or suspended organic matter) particles and living microorganisms have been found to critically influence the product yield in microelectronics manufacturing. In some pharmaceutical applications (e.g. water for injections, and some biotechnical processes), sterility, i.e. the absence of any microorganisms has to be guaranteed.
KeywordsUltrapure Water Ozone Concentration Reverse Osmosis Conductivity Maximum Ozone Decomposition
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