The Paraventriculo-Infundibular Corticotropin Releasing Factor (CRF)—Immunoreactive System of the Rat — I. Morphological Aspects

  • Zsolt Liposits
  • István Lengvári
  • Sándor Vigh
  • Tamás Görcs
  • György Sétáló
  • Béla Flerkó
Part of the Biochemical Endocrinology book series (BIOEND)


The hormone production of the anterior pituitary is influenced by neurosecretory materials produced in neurons of the prosencephalon (Szentâgothai et al., 1962). The bioactive substances released from nerve endings of the median eminence and the pituitary stalk are taken up by hypophyseal portal vessels, which distribute them to the pars distalis of the pituitary gland (Harris, 1955). The stimulatory effect of diencephalic extracts upon the hormone secretion of adrenocorticotroph cells (Guillemin and Rosenberg, 1955; Saffran and Schally, 1955) proved the existence of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF). In the last three decades, several substances were proposed to be CRF’s or at least modulators of the adrenocorticotroph hormone (ACTH) releasing substance (for review see Saffran and Schally, 1977; Yasuda et al., 1982). Vale et al. (1981) have rencently reported the isolation of a 41-amino acid peptide from ovine hypothalamic tissue, with potent activity to stimulate the secretion of ACTH and beta-endorphin.


Paraventricular Nucleus Morphological Aspect Medial Vestibular Nucleus Neurosecretory Granule Neurosecretory Material 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alonso, G., and Assenmacher, I., 1979, The smooth endoplasmic reticulum in neurohypophyseal axons of the rat: Possible involvement in transport, storage and release of neurosecretory material, Cell Tissue Res. 199:415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Antoni, F.A., Palkovits, M., Makara, G. B., Linton, E. A., Lowry, P. J., and Kiss, L. Z., 1983, Immunoreactive corticotropin releasing hormone in the hypothalamoinfundibular tract, Neuroendocrinology, 36:415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bloom, F. E., Battenberg, E. L. F., Rivier, J., and Vale, W., 1982, Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF): immunoreactive neurons and fibers in the rat hypothalamus. Regul. Peptides, 4:43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brown, M. R., Fischer, L. A., spiess, J., Rivier, C. Rivier, J., and Vale, W., 1982, Corticotropin-releasing factor: actions on the sympathetic nervous system and metabolism. Endocrinology, 111:928.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bruhn, T. O., Plotsky, P. M., and Vale, W. W., 1984, Effect of paraventricular lesions on corticotropin releasing factor (CRF)-like immunoreactivity in the stalk-median eminence: studies on the adrenocorticotropin response to ether stress and exogenous CRF, Endocrinology, 114:57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bugnon, C., Fellmann, D., Gouget, A., and Cardot, J., 1982, Corticoliberin in the rat brain: immunocytochemical localization of a novel neuroglandular system, Neurosci. Lett., 30:25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fischman, A. J., and Moldow, R. L., Extrahypothalamic distribution of CRF-like immunoreactivity in the rat brain, Peptides, 1:149.Google Scholar
  8. Guillemin, R., and Rosenberg, B., 1955, Humoral hypothalamic control of anterior pituitary: Study with combined tissue cultures, Endocrinology, 57:599.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Harris, G. W., 1955, Neural control of the pituitary gland. Monographs of the Physiological society, Number 3. London Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd.Google Scholar
  10. Joseph, S. A., 1980, Immunoreactive adrenocorticotropin in rat brain: a neuroanatomical study using antiserum generated against synthetic ACTHG-39), Amer. J. Anat., 158:533.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kawata, M., Hashimoto, K., Takahara, J., and Sano, Y., 1982, Immunohistochemical demonstration of the localization of corticotropin releasing factor-containing neurons in the hypothalamus of mammals including primates. Anat. Embriol., 165: 303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kovács, M., Lengvári, I., Liposits, Zs., Vigh, S., Schally, A. V., and Flerkó, B., 1984, CRF-immunoreactive neurons in the mammillary body of the rat, Cell Tissue Res, (submitted).Google Scholar
  13. Krieger, D. T., Liotta, A., and Brownstein, M. J., 1977, Presence of corticotropin in brain of normal and hypophysectomized rats. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. USA 74:648.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lengvári, I., Liposits, Zs., Vigh, S., Schally, A. V., and Flerkó, B., 1984, The origin and ultrastructural characteristics of CRF-immunoreactive nerve fibers in the posterior pituitary of the rat, Cell Tissue Res., (submitted).Google Scholar
  15. Léránth, Cs., Antoni, F. A., and Palkovits, M., 1983, Ultrastructural demonstration of ovine CRF-like immunoreactivity (oCRF-LI) in the rat hypothalamus: processes of magnocellular neurons establish membrane specializations with parvocellular neurons containing oCRF-LI, Reg. Peptides, 6:179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Liposits, Zs., Göres, T., Sétáló, Gy., Lengvári, I., Flerkó, B., Vigh, S., and Schally, A.V., 1983a, Ultrastructural characteristics of immunolabelied, corticotropin releasing factor (CRF)-synthesizing neurons in the rat brain. Cell Tiss. Res., 229: 191.Google Scholar
  17. Liposits, Zs., Lengvári, I., Vigh, S., Schally, A. V., and Flerkó, B., 1983b, Immunohistological detection of degenerating CRF-immunoreactive nerve fibers in the median eminence after lesion of paraventricular nucleus of the rat. A light and electron microscopic study, Peptides, 4:941.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Liposits, Zs., Göres, T., Török, A., Domány, S., and Sétáló, Gy., 1983c, Simultaneous localization of two different tissue antigens based on the silver intensified PAP-DAB and on the traditional PAP-DAB methods, Acta Morph. Acad. Sci. Hung., 31:365.Google Scholar
  19. Liposits, Zs., Sétáló, G., Flerkó, B., 1984, Application of the silver-gold intensified 3,3′-diaminobenzidine chromogen to the light and electron microscopic detection of the LH-RH system of the rat brain, Neuroscience, (in press).Google Scholar
  20. Mains, R.E., Eipper, B. A., and Ling, N., 1977, Common precursor to corticotropins and endorphins. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 74:3014.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Makara, G. B., Stark, E., Kárteszi, M., Palkovits, M., and Rappay, Gy., 1981, Effects of paraventricular lesions on stimulated ACTH release and CRF in stalk-median eminence of the rat, Am J. Physiol., 240:E441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Makara, G. B., Kárteszi, M., Kiss, J. Z., Palkovits, M., Rappay, G., and Stark, E., 1982, Corticoliberin (CRF) activity in selected hypothalamic regions in rats with anterolateral hypothalamic cuts, Neuropeptides, 2:287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Merchenthaler, I., Vigh, S., Petrusz, P., and Schally, A.V., 1982, Immunocytochemical localization of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in the rat brain., Am. J. Anat., 165:385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Merchenthaler, I., Vigh, S., Petrusz, P., and Schally, A.V., 1983a, The paraventriculo-infundibular corticotropin releasing factor (CRF)-pathway as revealed by immunocytochemistry in long-term hypophysectomized or adrenalectomized rats. Reg. Peptides, 5:295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Merchenthaler, I., Hynes, M. A., Vigh, S., Schally, A. V., and Petrusz, P., 1983b, Immunocytochemical localization of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in the rat spinal cord. Brain Res., 275: 373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Merchenthaler, I., 1984a, Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF)-like immunoreactivity in the rat central nervous system. Extrahypothalamic distribution, 5:53, (Suppl. 1).Google Scholar
  27. Merchenthaler, I., Hynes, M. A., Vigh, S., Schally, A. V., and Petrusz, P., 1984b, Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF): origin and course of afferent pathways to the median eminence (ME) of the rat hypothalamus. Neuroendocrinology, 39:296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Moldow, R., and Fischman, A. J., 1982a, Radioimmunoassay of CRF-like material in rat hypothalamus, Peptides, 3:37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Moldow, R. L., Fischman, A. J., 1982b, Hypothalamic CRF--like immunoreactivity in the rat after hypophysectomy or adrenalectomy, Peptides, 1:143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Olschowka, J. A., O’Donohue, T. L., Mueller, G. P., and Jakobowitz, D. M., 1982, Hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic distribution of CRF-like imraunoreactive neurons in the rat brain, Neuroendocrinology, 35:305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pauli, W.K., Gibbs, F. P., 1983, The corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) neurosecretory system in intact, adrenalectomized, and adrenalectomized-dexamethasone treated rats, Histochemistry, 78:303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pilcher, W. H., and Joseph, S. A., 1984, Co-localization of CRF-ir perikarya and ACTH-ir fibers in rat brain, Brain Res., 299:91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rivier, C., Brownstein, M., Spiess, J., Rivier, J., and Vale, W., 1982, In vivo corticotropin-releasing factor-induced secretion of adrenocorticotropin, ß-endorphin, and corticosterone, Endocrinology, 110:272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Romagnano, M., Jospeh, S. A., 1983, Immunocytochemical localization of ACTH1–39 in the brainstem of the rat, Brain Res., 276:1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Russel, S. M., Dhariwal, A. P. S., McCann, S. M., Yates, F. E., 1969, Inhibition by dexamethasone of the in vivo pituitary response to corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), Endocrinology, 85:512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Saffran, M., and Schally, A. V., 1955, The release, of corticotropin by anterior pituitary tissue in vitro, Can J. Biochem. Physiol., 33:408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Saffran, M., and Schally, a. V., 1977, The status of the corticotropin releasing factor (CRF). Neuroendocrinology, 24:359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sawchenko, P. E., Swanson, L. W., and Joseph, S. A., 1982, The distribution and cells of origin of ACTH(1–39)-stained varicosities in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei. Brain Res., 232:365.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sirinathsinghji, D. J. S., Rees, L. H., Rivier, J., and Vale, W., 1983, Corticotropin releasing factor is a potent inhibitor of sexual receptivitiy in the female rat, Nature, 305:232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Spiess, J., Rivier, J., Rivier, C., and Vale, W., 1981, Primary structure of corticotropin-releasing factor from ovine hypothalamus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 78:6517.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sternberger, L. A., 1979, Iramunocytochemistry, 2nd Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  42. Swanson, L. W., Sawchenko, P. E., Rivier, J., and Vale, W. W., 1983, Organization of ovine corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactive cells and fibers in the rat brain: An immunohistochemical study, Neuroendocrinology, 36:165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Szentágothai, J., Flerkó, B., Mess, B., and Halász, B., 1962, Hypothalamic control of the anterior pituitary, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.Google Scholar
  44. Tramu, G., Croix, C., and Pillez, A., 1983, Ability of the CRF immunoreactive neurons of the paraventricular nucleus to produce a vasopressin-like material, Neuroendocrinology, 37:467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Turkelson, C. M., Arimura, A., Culler, M. D., Fishback, J. B., Groot, K., Kanda, M., Luciano, M., Thomas, C. R., Chang, D., Chang, J. K., and Shimizu, M., 1981, In vivo and in vitro release of ACTH by synthetic CRF, Peptides; 2:425.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Vale, W., Spiess, J., Rivier, C., and Rivier, J., 1981, Characterization of a 41-residue ovine hypothalamic peptide that stimulates secretion of corticotropin and ß-endorphin, Science, 213:1394.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Vale, W., Rivier, C., Brown, M. R., Spiess, J., Koob, G., Swanson, L., Bilezikjian, L., Bloom, F., and Rivier, J., 1983, Chemical and biological characterization of corticotropin releasing factor, Recent Progress in Hormone Research, 39:245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Valentino, R. J., Foote, S. L., and Aston-Jones, G., 1983, Corticotropin releasing factor activates noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus, Brain Res., 270:363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Vigh, S., Merchenthaler, I., Petrusz, P., Sueiras-Diaz, J., and Schally, A. V., 1982a, Specific antibodies against the corticotropin releasing factor (CRF): immunocytochemical localization of CRF in the rat brain. The End, Soc. 64th Annual Meeting, San Francisco, p. 84.Google Scholar
  50. Vigh, S., Merchenthaler, I., Torres-Aleman, I., Sueiras-Diaz, J., Coy, D. H., Carter, W. H., Petrusz, P., and Schally, A. V., 1982b, Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF): immunocytochemical localization and radioimmunoassay (RIA), Life Sci., 31:2441.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Watson, S. J., Richer, C. W., Barchas, J. D., 1978, Adrenocorticotropin in rat brain: immunocytochemical localization in cells and axons, Science, 200:1180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Yasuda, N., Greer, M. A., and Aizawa, T., 1982, Corticotropin releasing factor, Endocr. Rev., 3:123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Yates, F. E., Russel, S. M., Dallman, M. F., Hedge, G. A., McCann, S. M., Dhariwal, A. P. S., 1971, Potentiation by vasopressin of corticotropin release induced by corticotropin-releasing factor, Endocrinology, 88:3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zsolt Liposits
    • 1
  • István Lengvári
    • 1
  • Sándor Vigh
    • 1
  • Tamás Görcs
    • 1
  • György Sétáló
    • 1
  • Béla Flerkó
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnatomyUniversity Medical SchoolPécsHungary

Personalised recommendations