Flow Cytometry: An Overview

  • Paul F. Mullaney
  • James H. Jett
Part of the Nato Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (NSSA, volume 34)


Approximately a decade has passed since the first reports on modern flow cytometry appeared in the general literature (5, 12, 13, 21, 27, 38). During that time, many advances have been made in both the instruments available and the wide variety of applications that have appeared in many areas in biology and medicine. The purpose of the present paper is not to review all these aspects but to (a) give a brief historical introduction to the field; (b) describe the basic features common to all instrumental approaches; and finally (c) give some indication of future trends that can be expected to materialize in the next few years. Several excellent reviews are now available, and the reader is referred to these for more details and references (4, 24).


Acridine Orange Droplet Formation Flow Chamber Sheath Fluid Small Angle Light Scattering 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. 1.
    Adams LR, Kamentsky LS: Machine characterization of human leukocytes by acridine orange fluorescence. Acta Cytol 15:289, 1971Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adams LR, Kamentsky LS: Fluorometric characterization of six classes of human leukocytes. Acta Cytol 18: 389, 1974Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anderson EC, Bell GI, Petersen DF, Tobey RA: Cell growth and division. IV. Determination of volume growth rate and division probability. Biophys J 9:246, 1969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Arndt-Jovin DJ, Jovin TM: Automated cell sorting with flow systems, in Annual Reviews of Biophysics and Bioengineering. Annual Reviews, Inc., Palo Alto, Calif., 1978, Vol 7 (in press)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bonner WA, Hulett HR, Sweet RG, Herzenberg LA: Fluorescence activated cell sorting. Rev. Sci Instrum 43:404, 1972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brunsting A, Mullaney PF: Differential light scattering: A possible method of mammalian cell identification. J Coll Interface Sci 39:492, 1972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Brunsting A, Mullaney PF: Light scattering from coated spheres: Model for biological cells. Appl Opt 11:675, 1972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brunsting a, Mullaney PF: Differential light scattering from spherical mammalian cells. Biophys J 14: 439, 1974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chew H, McNulty PJ, Kerker M: Model for Raman and fluorescent scattering by molecules embedded in small particles. Phys Rev A13:396, 1976Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Coulter WH: High speed automatic blood cell counter and cell size analyzer. Natl Electron Conf Proc 12:1034, 1956Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Crossland-Tayler PJ: A device for counting small particles suspended in a fluid through a tube. Nature 171:37, 1953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dittrich W, Göhde W: Irrpulse flourometry with single cells in suspension. Ζ Naturforsch 243: 360, 1969Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fulwylwer MJ: Electronic separation of biological cells by volume. Science 150:910, 1965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fulwyler MJ: Electronic Volume Analysis and Volume Fractionation Applied to Mammalian Cells. Ph.D. thesis, Department of Biophysics, University of Colorado, Denver, 1969Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gordon DJ, Hozwarth G: Optical activity of membrane suspensions: Calculation of artifacts by Mie scattering theory. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 68:2365, 1971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gordon DJ: Mie scattering by optically active particles. Biochemistry 11:413, 1972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Holm DM, Cram LS: An improved flow microfluorometer for rapid measurement of cell fluorescence. Exp Cell Res 80:105, 1973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Holzwarth G, Gordon DG, McGinness JE, Dorman BP, Maestre MF: Mie scattering contributions to the optical density and circular dichroism of T2 bacteriophage. Biochemistry 13:126, 1974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jovin DJ, Jovin TΜ: Computer controlled multiparameter analysis and sorting of cells and particles. J Histochem Cytochem 22:622, 1974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kachel V: Technical aspects of resistance pulse sizing, in Flow Cytometry and Cell Sorting. Edited by MR Melamed, PF Mullaney, and MM Medelsohn. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1978 (in press)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kamentsky LA, Melamed MR, Derman H: Spectrophotmeter: New instrument for ultra rapid cell analysis. Science 150: 630, 1965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mansberg HP, Saunders AM, Groner W: The hemalog D white cell differential system. J Histochem Cytochem 22:711, 1974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Melamed MR, Adams LR, Zimring A, Murnich JG, Mayer K: Preliminary evaluation of acridine orange as a vital for automated differential leukocyte counts. J Clin Path 57:95, 1972Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Melamed MR, Mullaney PF, Mendelsohn MM, Eds: Flow Cytometry and Cell Sorting. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1978 (in press)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mullaney PF, Dean PN: Cell sizing: A small-angle light-scattering method for sizing particles of low relative refractive index. Appl Opt 8:2361, 1969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mullaney PF, Dean PN: Small angle light scattering of biological cells. Biophys J 10:764, 1970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mullaney PF, Van Dilla MA, Boulter JR, Dean PN: Cell sizing: A Light-scattering photometer for rapid volume determination Rev Sci Instrum 40:1029, 1969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mullaney PF, West WT: A dual-parameter flow microfluormeter for rapid cell analysis. J Phys 6:1006, 1973Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rotman B, Papermaster BW: Membrane properties of living mammalian cells as studied by enzymatic hydrolysis of fluorogenic esters. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 55:134, 1966CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Salzman GC, Mullaney PF, Coulter JR: A Coulter volume spectrometer employing a potential sensing technique. Biophys J Abstracts 13:302a, 1973Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Steinkamp JA: An Apparatus for the Detection of Fluorescing Cells. PH:D. thesis, Electrical Engineering Department, Iowa State University, Ames, 1967Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Steinkam JA, Fulwylwer MJ, Coulter JR, Hiebert RD, Horney JL, Mullaney PF: A new multiparameter separator for microscopic particles and biological cells. Rev Sci Instrum 44:1301, 1973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Steinkamp JA, Romero A, Van Dilla MA: Multiparameter cell sorting: Identification of human leukocytes by acridine orange fluorescence. Acta Cytol 17:113, 1973Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Stoul RT and Sweet RG. Individual Cell Sorting. Journal of Histochem. and Cytochem. 27, p.284 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Thomas A, Leif RC: A report on the completion of the first stage of the automated multiparameter analyzer for cells. Biophys J Abstracts 11:169a, 1971Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Van Dilla MA, Fulwyler MJ, Boone IU: Volume distribution and separation of normal human leukocytes. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 125:367, 1967Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Van Dilla MA, Mullaney FF, Coulter JR: The fluorescent cell spectrometer: A new method for the rapid detection of biological cells stained with fluorescent dyes, in Biological and Medical Research Group (H-4) of the Health Division— Annual Report, July 1966 through Hune 1967, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory report LA-3848-MS (1968), p 100Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Van Dilla MA, Trujillo TT, Mullaney PP, Coulter JR: Cell microfluorometry: A method for rapid fluorescence measurements. Science 163:1213, 1969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Van Dilla MA, Steinmetz LL, Davis D, Calvert R, Gray J: High speed cell analysis and sorting with flow systems: Biological applications and new approaches. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci NS-21:714, 1974CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul F. Mullaney
    • 1
  • James H. Jett
    • 1
  1. 1.Biophysics and Instrumentation Group, Los Alamos Scientific LaboratoryUniversity of CaliforniaLos AlamosUSA

Personalised recommendations