The literature includes over 3100 natural associations between insects and nematodes, involving 11 orders of nematodes and 19 orders of insects. If we eliminate phoretic nematodes, which use insects for transport, then we are left with eight orders of nematodes with representatives capable of parasitizing insects. The great majority of these parasites are found attacking beetles (Coleoptera) and flies (Diptera), although representatives in 17 other orders are also stricken. Nematodes attack both terrestrial and aquatic insects and occur in all hosts stages except the egg.
KeywordsBark Beetle Dung Beetle Symbiotic Bacterium Insect Host Malpighian Tubule
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