Advertisement

The Northern Termination of the Andes

  • Reginald Shagam

Abstract

In terms of topography, the northernmost extensions of the Andes branch into long fingerlike ranges separated by low-lying sediment-filled basins. Geologic definition of the northern Andes is a far more complex problem. For many, the term “Andes” has the connotation of Tertiary block uplifts or Germano-type orogeny, in contrast to the orogenic model associated with island arcs. It is common practice, therefore, to regard the Southern Caribbean Mountains, i.e., the coastal ranges of northern Venezuela and Trinidad, as having affinities with the Caribbean Island Arc, whereas the Mérida ranges are classed as Andean. There are others such as Gansser (1973) who include all ranges on the continental mainland as Andean and consider the Caribbean Island Arc to begin at the southernmost of the Lesser Antilles. On the gross scale of this report, the two kinds of orogenic belt are closely associated in space: With allowance for major lateral offsets, one may claim geologic continuity from the lesser Antilles into the northern ranges of Trinidad-Venezuela and thence into the Guajira Peninsula and the northwestern apex of the Santa Marta block continuing into the Cordillera Central (cf. Alvarez, 1971). It has been an arbitrary decision on my part to exclude from discussion here the northern ranges of Trinidad-Venezuela and the Guajira Peninsula. For convenience, the southern limit of the region under discussion has been set at the latitude of Bogotá (4°40’ N).

Keywords

Continental Crust Plate Theory Regional Metamorphism Late Ordovician Granitic Pluton 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alvarez, W., 1971, Fragmented Andean belt of northern Colombia: Geol. Soc. Am. Mem. 130, p. 77–96.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, T. A., 1972, Paleogene Nonmarine Gualanday Group, Neiva Basin, Colombia, and regional development of the Colombian Andes: Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., v. 83, p. 2423–2438.Google Scholar
  3. Arnold, H. C., 1966, Upper Paleozoic Sabaneta-Palmarito sequence of Merida Andes, Venezuela: Am. Assoc. Petr. Geol., v. 50, n. 11, p. 2366–2387.Google Scholar
  4. Ball, M. M., Harrison, C. G. A., Supko, P. R., Bock, W., and Maloney, N. J., 1971, Marine Geophysical measurements on the southern boundary of the Caribbean Sea, Donnelly, T. W., ed.: Geol. Soc. Am. Mem. 130, p. 1–33.Google Scholar
  5. Barrero, D., Alvarez, J., and Kassem, T., 1969, Actividad ígnea y tectónica en la Cordillera Central durante el Meso-Cenozóico: Bol. Geól. (Colombia), Ingeominas, v. 17, p. 145–173.Google Scholar
  6. Bass, M. N., and Shagam, R., 1960, Edades Rb/Sr de las rocas cristalinas de los Andes Merideños, Venezuela: III Cong. Geol. Venezolano, Caracas: Bol. Geol. (Venezuela), Publ. Espec. No. 3, v. 1, p. 377–381.Google Scholar
  7. Bell, J. S., 1971, Tectonic evolution of the central part of the Venezuelan Coast Ranges: Geol. Soc. Am. Mem. 130, p. 107–118.Google Scholar
  8. Bell, J. S., 1972, Geotectonic evolution of the southern Caribbean area: Geol. Soc. Am. Mem. 132, p. 369–386.Google Scholar
  9. Bellizzia G. A., 1972, Is the entire Caribbean mountain belt of northern Venezuela alloch-thonous?: Geol. Soc. Am. Mem. 132, p. 363–368.Google Scholar
  10. Beloussov, V. V., 1967, Esbozo de la tectónica de los Andes: Geol. Colomb., N. 4, p. 5–24.Google Scholar
  11. Botero Arango, G., 1963, Contribución al conocimiento de la geología de la zona central de Antioquia: Anales de la Facultad de Minas, n. 57, Medellín, 101 p.Google Scholar
  12. Botero Restrepo, G., 1950, Reconocimiento geológico del área comprendida por los municipios de Belén, Cerinza, Corrales, Floresta, Nobsa y Santa Rosa de Viterbo, Departamento de Boyacá: Servicio Geológico Nacional, Ministerio de Minas y Petroleos, v. 8, p. 245–311, Bogotá.Google Scholar
  13. Bowen, J. M., 1972, Estratigrafía del precretáceo en la parte norte de la Sierra de Perijá: IV Cong. Geól. Venezolano, v. II, p. 729–761: Bol. de Geól., Publ. Espec. No. 5, Ministerio de Minas e Hidrocarburos, Caracas.Google Scholar
  14. Bucher, W. H., 1952, Geologic structure and orogenic history of Venezuela: Geol. Soc. Am. Mem. 49, 113 p.Google Scholar
  15. Burgl, H., 1961, Historia geológica de Colombia: Rev. Acad. Colomb. Cien. Exactas, Fis. Nat., v. 11, n. 43, p. 137–193.Google Scholar
  16. Burgl, H., 1967, The orogenesis in the Andean system of Colombia: Tectonophysics, v. 4, p. 429–443.Google Scholar
  17. Burgl, H., 1973, Precambrian to middle Cretaceous stratigraphy of Colombia: Translated by Allen, C. G., and Rowlinson, N. R., Bogota, 214 p.Google Scholar
  18. Butterlin, J., 1972, La posición estructural de los Andes de Colombia: IV Cong. Geól. Venezolano, v. II, p. 1185–1200: Bol. de Geól., Publ. Espec. No. 5, Ministerio de Minas e Hidrocarburos, Caracas.Google Scholar
  19. Campbell, C. J., 1968, The Santa Marta wrench fault of Colombia and its regional setting: Fourth Carib. Geol. Conf. Trans., Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, W. I., 1965, p. 247–261.Google Scholar
  20. Campbell, C. J., and Burgl, H., 1965, Section through the eastern cordillera of Colombia, South America: Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., v. 76, p. 567–590.Google Scholar
  21. Case, J. E., Duran, S. L. G., Lopez R., Alfonso, and Moore, W. R., 1971, Tectonic investigations in western Colombia and eastern Panama: Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., v. 82, p. 2685–2712.Google Scholar
  22. Case, J. E., and MacDonald, W. D., 1973, Regional gravity anomalies and crustal structure in northern Colombia: Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., v. 84, p. 2905–2916.Google Scholar
  23. Cediel, F., 1968, El Grupo Girón; una molasa mesozoica de la cordillera oriental: Bol. Geológico, v. XVI, n. 1–3, p. 5–96; Servicio Geológico Nacional, Bogotá.Google Scholar
  24. Cediel, F., 1972, Movimientos tectónicos en el intervalo Paleozoico-Mesozoico en Colombia y su influencia en reconstrucciones paleogeográficas: Preprint, International Symposium on Carboniferous and Permian System, Sao-Paulo, Brazil.Google Scholar
  25. Compañía Shell de Venezuela and Creole Petroleum Corporation, 1964, Paleozoic rocks of Merida Andes, Venezuela: Am. Assoc. Petr. Geol. Bull., v. 48, p. 70–84.Google Scholar
  26. Creer, K. M., 1970, A paleomagnetic survey of South American rock formations: Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc., London, Ser. A, v. 267, p. 457–557.Google Scholar
  27. Dallmus, K. F., and Graves, G. R., 1972, Tectonic history of Maracaibo and Barinas basins: VI Conf. Geol. del Caribe, Isla de Margarita, Venezuela, Memorias, 1971, p. 214–226.Google Scholar
  28. Dengo, G., 1972, Review of Caribbean serpentinites and their tectonic implications: Geol. Soc. Am. Mem. 132, p. 303–312.Google Scholar
  29. Dengo, G., and Bohnenberger, O., 1969, Structural development of northern Central America: Am. Assoc. Petr. Geol. Mem. 11, p. 203–220.Google Scholar
  30. Dewey, J. W., 1972, Seismicity and tectonics of western Venezuela: Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., v. 62, n. 6, p. 1711–1751.Google Scholar
  31. Dufour, J., 1955, Some oil-geological characteristics of Venezuela: IV World Petroleum Cong. Proc, Rome, v. 1, p. 19–55.Google Scholar
  32. Eardley, A. J., 1954, Tectonic relations of North and South America: Am. Assoc. Petr. Geol. Bull., v. 38, n. 5, p. 707–773.Google Scholar
  33. Feininger, T., Barrero, D., Castro, N., Ramírez, O., Lozano, H., Vesga, J., et al., 1970, Mapa geológico del oriente del depto. de Antioquia, Colombia (2 sheets): Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Geológico-Mineras, Ministerio de Minas y Petróleos, Bogotá.Google Scholar
  34. Feininger, T., 1970, The Palestina fault, Colombia: Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., v. 81, n. 4, p. 1201–1216.Google Scholar
  35. Féo-Codecido, G., 1972, Breves ideas sobre la estructura de la falla de Oca, Venezuela: VI Conf. Geol. del Caribe, Margarita, Venezuela, Memorias, 1971, p. 184–190.Google Scholar
  36. Forero, A., 1967, Notas preliminares sobre la estratigrafía del Paleozoico en el norte de los Andes de Colombia: Inst. Colombo-Alemán Investigaciones Cientificas, Santa Marta, p. 31–37.Google Scholar
  37. Gansser, A., 1955, Ein Beitrag zur Geologie und Petrographie der Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (Kolumbien, Sudamerika): Schweiz. Mineral. Petrogr. Mitt., v. 35, n. 2, p. 209–279.Google Scholar
  38. Gansser, A., 1973, Facts and theories on the Andes: J. Geol Soc. London, v. 129, p. 93–131.Google Scholar
  39. Garcia, R. J., and Campos, V., 1972, Las rocas paleozoicas en la región del Rio Mombóy, Estado Trujillo: IV Cong. Geol. Venezolano, v. II, p. 796–806: Bol. de Geól., Publ. Espec. No. 5, Ministerio de Minas e Hidrocarburos, Caracas.Google Scholar
  40. Giegengack, R. F., and Grauch, R. L, 1972, Bocono Fault, Venezuelan Andes: Science, v. 175, p. 558–560.Google Scholar
  41. Giegengack, R. F., and Grauch, R. I., 1973a, Quaternary geology of the central Andes, Venezuela; a preliminary assessment: Excursion no. 1, Cordillera de los Andes: II Cong. Geol. Latinoamericano, Caracas, in press.Google Scholar
  42. Giegengack, R. F., and Grauch, R. I., 1973b, Late Cenozoic climatic stratigraphy of the Venezuelan Andes: Excursion no. 1, Cordillera de los Andes: II Cong. Geol. Latinoamericano, Caracas, in press.Google Scholar
  43. Giegengack, R. F., Grauch, R. I., and Shagam, R., 1973, Geometry of Late Cenozoic displacement along the Bocono Fault, Venezuelan Andes: II Cong. Geol. Latinoamericano, Caracas, in press.Google Scholar
  44. Gilluly, J., 1963, The tectonic evolution of the western United States: Q. J. Geol. Soc. London, v. 119, p. 133–174.Google Scholar
  45. Gilluly, J., 1972, Tectonics involved in the evolution of mountain ranges, in: The Nature of the So’id Earth, Robertson, E. C., Hays, J. F., and Knopoff, L., eds.: McGraw-Hill International Series in the Earth and Planetary Sciences.Google Scholar
  46. Goldsmith, R., Marvin, R. F., and Mehnert, H. H., 1971, Radiometric ages in the Santander massif, eastern cordillera, Colombian Andes: U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 750-D, p. D44–D49.Google Scholar
  47. Grauch, R. I., 1971, Geology of the Sierra Nevada south of Mucuchies, Venezuelan Andes: an aluminum-silicate-bearing metamorphic terrain: Ph.D. thesis, Pennsylvania University, Philadelphia, Pa. 180 p.Google Scholar
  48. Grauch, R. I., 1972, Preliminary report of a Late(?) paleozoic metamorphic event in the Venezuelan Andes: Geol. Soc. Am. Mem. 132, p. 465–473.Google Scholar
  49. Hargraves, R. B., and Shagam, R., 1969, Paleomagnetic study of La Quinta Formation, Venezuela: Am. Assoc. Petr. Geol. Bull., v. 53, n. 3, p. 537–552.Google Scholar
  50. Harvey, S. R. M., 1972, Origin of the southern Caribbean mountains: Geol. Soc. Am. Mem. 132, p. 387–400.Google Scholar
  51. Hea, J. P., and Whitman, A. B., 1960, Estratigrafía y petrología de los sedimentos pre-cretácios de la parte norte central de la Sierra de Perijá, Estado Zulia, Venezuela: III Cong. Geol. Venezolano, Memoria, v. I, p. 351–376: Bol. de Geól., Publ. Espec. No. 3, Ministerio de Minas e Hidrocarburos, Caracas.Google Scholar
  52. Hess, H. H., 1938, Gravity anomalies and island arc structure with particular reference to the West Indies: Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., v. 79, p. 1–96.Google Scholar
  53. Hess, H. H., 1955, Serpentines, orogeny, and epeirogeny: Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Pap. 62, p. 391–407.Google Scholar
  54. Hodgson, R. A., 1961, Regional study of jointing in Comb Ridge-Navajo Mountain area, Arizona and Utah: Am. Assoc. Petr. Geol. Bull., v. 45, n. 1, p. 1–38.Google Scholar
  55. Hospers, J., and van Wijnen, J. C., 1959, The gravity field of the Venezuelan Andes and adjacent basins: K. Ned. Akad. Wet., Versl. Geworte Vergad. Afd. Natuurk., v. 23, n. 1, p. 1–95.Google Scholar
  56. Irving, E. M., 1971, La evolución estructural de los Andes mas septentrionales de Colombia: Bol. Geológico, v. XIX, n. 2, p. i–xiv, 1–90: Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Geologico-Mineras, Ministerio de Minas y Petróleos, Bogotá.Google Scholar
  57. Jacobs C., Burgl, H., and Conley, D. L., 1963, Backbone of Colombia, in: Backbone of the Americas, Childs, O. E., and Beebe, B. W., eds.: Am. Assoc. Petr. Geol. Mem. 2, p. 62–72.Google Scholar
  58. Kaula, W. M., 1969, A tectonic classification of the main features of the earth’s gravitational field: J. Geophys. Res., v. 74, n. 20, p. 4807–1826.Google Scholar
  59. Kehrer, L., 1938, Some observations on the stratigraphy in the States of Táchira and Mérida, S.W. Venezuela: Bol. de Geología y Minería, v. II, n. 2, 3, 4, p. 44–55.Google Scholar
  60. Khudoley, K. M., and Meyerhoff, A. A., 1971, Paleogeography and geological history of the Greater Antilles: Geol. Soc. Am. Mem. 129, 197 p.Google Scholar
  61. Kovisars, L., 1971, Geology of a portion of the north-central Venezuelan Andes: Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., v. 82, n. 11, p. 3111–3138.Google Scholar
  62. Krause, D. C., 1971, Bathymetry, geomagnetism, and tectonics of the Caribbean Sea north of Colombia, Donnelly, T. W., ed.: Geol. Soc. Am. Mem. 130, p. 35–54.Google Scholar
  63. Kündig, E., 1938, The precretaceous rocks of the central Venezuelan Andes with some remarks about the tectonics: Bol. de Geología y Minería, v. II, n. 2, 3, 4, p. 21–43.Google Scholar
  64. Lees, G. M., 1952, Foreland Folding: Q. J. Geol. Soc. London, v. 108, p. 1–34.Google Scholar
  65. MacDonald, W. D., Doolan, B. L., and Cordani, U. G., 1971, Cretaceous-early Tertiary metamorphic K-Ar age values from the south Caribbean: Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., v. 82, n. 5, p. 1381–1388.Google Scholar
  66. MacDonald, W. D., and Opdyke, N. D., 1972, Tectonic rotations suggested by Paleomagnetic results from Northern Colombia, South America: J. Geophys. Res., v. 77, n. 29, p. 5720–5730.Google Scholar
  67. MacDonald, W. D., and Opdyke, N. D., 1974, Triassic paleomagnetism of northern South America: Am. Assoc. Petr. Geol. Bull., v. 58, n. 2, p. 208–215.Google Scholar
  68. MacKenzie, D. B., 1960, High-temperature alpine-type peridotite from Venezuela: Geol. Soc. Bull., v. 71, p. 303–318.Google Scholar
  69. Martin-Bellizzia, C., 1968, Edades isotópicas de rocas Venezolanos: Venez. Bol. Geól., v. 10, n. 19, p. 356–380.Google Scholar
  70. McLaughlin, D. H., Jr., Arce H., M., et al., 1969: Mapa geológico del cuadrángulo K-11, “Zipaquira”-Colombia: Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Geológico-Mineras, Ministerio de Minas y Petróleos, Bogotá.Google Scholar
  71. Mégard, F., Dalmayrac, B., Laubacher, G., Marocco, R., Martínez, C., Paredes, J., and Tomasi, P., 1971, La chaine Hercynienne au Pérou et en Bolivie premiers résultats: Cah. O.R.S.T.O.M., Sér. Géol., v. III, n. 1, p. 5–44.Google Scholar
  72. Mencher, E., 1963, Tectonic history of Venezuela, in: Backbone of the Americas, Childs, O. E., and Beebe, B. W., eds.: Am. Assoc. Petr. Geol. Mem. 2, p. 73–87.Google Scholar
  73. Miller, J. B., 1962, Tectonic trends in Sierra de Perija and adjacent parts of Venezuela and Colombia: Am. Assoc. Petr. Geol Bull, v. 46, n. 9, p. 1565–1595.Google Scholar
  74. Miyashiro, A., 1961, Evolution of metamorphic belts: J. Petrol., v. 2, part 3, p. 277–311.Google Scholar
  75. Molnar, P., and Sykes, L. R., 1969, Tectonics of the Caribbean and Middle America regions from focal mechanisms and seismicity: Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., v. 80, p. 1639–1684.Google Scholar
  76. Morales, L. G., and The Colombian Petroleum Industry, 1958, General geology and oil occurrences of Middle Magdalena Valley, Colombia, in: Habitat of Cil: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geol., p. 641–695.Google Scholar
  77. Nelson, H. W., 1957, Contribution to the geology of the Central and Western Cordillera of Colombia in the sector between Ibague and Cali: Leidse Geol. Meded., v. 22, p. 1–76.Google Scholar
  78. Nelson, H. W., 1962, Contribución al conocimiento de la Cordillera Central de Colombia. Sección entre Ibagué y Armenia: Colombia, Bol. Geól, v. 10, p. 161–201.Google Scholar
  79. Nygren, W. E., 1950, Bolivar geosyncline of northwestern South America: Am. Assoc. Petr. Geol. Bull., v. 34, n. 10, p. 1998–2006.Google Scholar
  80. Olmeta, M. A., 1968, Determinación de edades radiométricas en rocas de Venezuela y su procedimiento por el método K/Ar: Venez., Bol. Geol., v. 10, n. 19, p. 339–344.Google Scholar
  81. Peive, A. V., Perfiliev, A. S., and Ruzhentsev, S. V., 1972, Problems of intracontinental geosynclines: 24th International Geol. Cong., Montreal, Sec. 3, p. 486–493.Google Scholar
  82. Poison, I. I., and Henao, D., 1968, The Santa Marta wrench fault—a rebuttal: Fourth Carib. Geol. Conf. Trans., Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, 1965, p. 263–266.Google Scholar
  83. Raasveldt, H. C., 1957, Las glaciaciones de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta: Rev. Acad. Colomb. Cien. Exactas, Fig. Nat., v. 9, n. 38, p. 469–482.Google Scholar
  84. Radelli, L., 1967, Géologie des Andes Colombiennes: Mem. 6, Laboratoire de Géologie de la Faculté des Sciences de Grenoble, 470 p.Google Scholar
  85. Ramírez, C., and Campos, V., 1972, Geología de la región de La Grita-San Cristóbal, Estado Táchira: IV Cong. Geól. Venezolano, v. II, p. 861–897: Bol. de Geól., Publ. Espec. No. 5, Ministerio de Minas e Hidrocarburos, Caracas.Google Scholar
  86. Rod, E., 1956, Strike-slip faults of northern Venezuela: Am. Assoc. Petr. Geol. Bull., v. 40, n. 3, p. 457–476.Google Scholar
  87. Rod, E., 1967, Paleotectonic reconstruction of the Antillean-Caribbean area for the close of the Carboniferous: Asoc. Venezolano de Geología, Minería y Petróleo, Bol. Informativo, v. 10, n. 7, p. 197–204.Google Scholar
  88. Schubert, C., 1969, Geologic structure of a part of the Barinas Mountain Front, Venezuelan Andes: Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., v. 80, n. 3, p. 443–458.Google Scholar
  89. Schubert, C., and Sifontes, R. S., 1970, Boconó Fault, Venezuelan Andes: Evidence of postglacial movement: Science, v. 170, p. 66–69.Google Scholar
  90. Schuchert, C., 1935, Historical Geology of the Antillean-Caribbean Region: John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, 811 p.Google Scholar
  91. Shagam, R., 1968, Commentary on the Caparo area: Asoc. Venezolano de Geología, Minería y Petróleo, Bol. Informativo, v. 11, n. 6, p. 171–182.Google Scholar
  92. Shagam, R., 1972a, Evolución tectónica de los Andes Venezolanos: IV Cong. Geol. Venezolano, v. II, p. 1201–1261: Bol. de Geól., Publ. Espec. No. 5, Ministerio de Minas e Hidrocarburos, Caracas.Google Scholar
  93. Shagam, R., 1972b, Andean research project, Venezuela: principal data and tectonic implications: Geol. Soc. Am. Mem. 132, p. 449–463.Google Scholar
  94. Shagam, R., and Hargraves, R. B., 1970, Geologic and paleomagnetic study of Permo- Carboniferous red beds (Sabaneta and Merida facies) Venezuelan Andes: Am. Assoc. Petr. Geol. Bull., v. 54, n. 12, p. 2336–2348.Google Scholar
  95. Shagam, R., and Hargraves, R. B., in press, Additional paleomagnetic data on tuffs of the La Quinta Formation, Venezuelan Andes: II Cong. Geol. Latinoamericano, Caracas, 1973.Google Scholar
  96. Stainforth, R. M., 1969, The concept of sea-floor spreading applied to Venezuela: Asoc. Venezolano de Geología, Minería y Petróleo, Bol. Informativo, v. 12, n. 8, p. 257–274.Google Scholar
  97. Stibane, F. R., 1967, Paläogeographie und Tectogenese der Kolumbianischen Anden: Geol. Rundschau, v. 56, p. 629–642.Google Scholar
  98. Stibane, F. R., 1968, Zur Geologie von Kolumbien, Sudamerika: Das Quetame- und Garzon-Massiv: Geotektonische Forsch., Heft 30, p. 1–85.Google Scholar
  99. Stibane, F. R., and Forero, S. A., 1969, Los afloramientos del paleozoico en La Jagua (Huila) y Rio Nevado (Santander del Sur): Geol. Colomb., n. 6, p. 31–66.Google Scholar
  100. Trumpy, D., 1943, Pre-Cretaceous of Colombia: Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., v. 54, n. 9, p. 1281–1304.Google Scholar
  101. Tschanz, C. M., Jimeno V., Andres, Cruz B., Jaime, et al., 1969, Mapa Geológico de Reconocimiento de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta-Colombia: Colombia Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Geologico-Mineras, Ministerio de Minas y Petróleos, Bogotá, scale 1: 200,000.Google Scholar
  102. Tschanz, C. M., Marvin, R. F., Cruz B. J., Mehnert, H. B., and Cebula, G. T., 1974, Geologic evolution of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Northeastern Colombia: Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., v. 85, n. 2, p. 273–284.Google Scholar
  103. Useche, A., and Fierro, I., 1972, Geología de la región de Pregonero, Estados Táchira y Mérida: IV Cong. Geól. Venezolano, v. II, p. 963–998: Bol. de Geól., Publ. Espec. No. 5, Ministerio de Minas e Hidrocarburos, Caracas.Google Scholar
  104. Van der Hammen, T., and Gonzales, E., 1963, Historia de clima y vegetación del Pleistoceno superior y del Holoceno de la Sabana de Bogotá, Colombia: Colomb. Bol. Geol., v. 11, n. 1–3, p. 189–260.Google Scholar
  105. Van Houten, F. B., and Travis, R. B., 1968, Cenozoic deposits, upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia: Am. Assoc. Petr. Geol. Bull., v. 52, n. 4, p. 675–702.Google Scholar
  106. Vázquez, E. E., and Dickey, P. A., 1972, Major faulting in north-western Venezuela and its relation to global tectonics: VI Caribbean Geol. Conf., Trans., Margarita, Venezuela, 1971, p. 191–202.Google Scholar
  107. Von Estorff, F. E., 1946, Tectonic framework of northwestern South America: Am. Assoc. Petr. Geol. Bull., v. 30, n. 4, p. 581–590.Google Scholar
  108. Ward, D. E., Goldsmith, R., Cruz B., J., et al., 1969, Mapa geológico del cuadrángulo H-12 (Bucaramanga), Colombia Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Geológico-Mineras, Ministerio de Minas y Petróleos, Bogotá.Google Scholar
  109. Ward, D. E., Goldsmith, R., Cruz B., J., et al., 1970, Mapa geológico del cuadrángulo H-13 (Pamplona), Colombia Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Geológico-Mineras, Ministerio de Minas y Petróleos, Bogotá.Google Scholar
  110. Wellman, S. S., 1970, Stratigraphy and petrology of the nonmarine Honda Group (Miocene), upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia: Geol Soc. Am. Bull., v. 81, p. 2353–2374.Google Scholar
  111. Wells, F. G., 1949, Ensimatic and ensialic geosynclines (abstract): Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., v. 60, p. 1927.Google Scholar
  112. Woodring, W. P., 1954, Caribbean land and sea through the ages: Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., v. 65, p. 719–732.Google Scholar
  113. Zambrano, E., Vásquez, E., Duval, B., Latreille, M., and Coffinieres, B., 1971, Síntesis paleogeográfica y petrolera del occidente de Venezuela: IV Cong. Geól. Venezolano, v. I, p. 483–551: Bol. de Geología, Publ. Espec. No. 5, Ministerio de Minas e Hidrocarburos, Caracas.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Reginald Shagam
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeologyBen Gurion University of the NegevBeer ShevaIsrael

Personalised recommendations