Advertisement

Taxonomic Schemes for Foodborne Fungi

  • R. A. Samson
  • J. C. Frisvad
  • O. Filtenborg
  • T. Deák
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 122)

Abstract

The papers assembled in this chapter present an update on the taxonomy of foodborne fungi and give some aids to the classification of these increasingly important microorganisms. Many participants who replied to questionnaires distributed before this workshop responded that they classified fungi only to the genus level. This is no doubt due in part to the difficulty of fungal taxonomy. A large part of traditional mold taxonomy is based upon morphology whereas yeast taxonomy is based more on physiological characteristics. Knowledge of the language used to describe morphological structures is required. Species identification is often necessary, e.g., when an organism is used for a desirable fermentation process. The safety of a product depends upon the mold species present. Certain species produce mycotoxins while closely related species do not. For instance, some isolates of Aspergillus flavus produce aflatoxin while the closely related Aspergillus oryzae does not and has been used for centuries in the Orient for food fermentations. Other reasons for classification of fungi are to predict the spoilage potential of a food, the possible heat resistance of a fungus, the kinds of mycotoxins which might be produced and the level of sanitation during processing. A mixed flora means something different than a single species and can point to a source of contamination.

Keywords

Kojic Acid Kluyveromyces Marxianus Mycotoxin Production Debaryomyces Hansenii Penicillic Acid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. ABE, S., IWAI, M. & SUGIHARA, T. 1982 Taxonomic studies of Penicillium I. Species of the section Aspergilloides. Transactions of the Mycological Society of Japan 23, 149–163.Google Scholar
  2. ABE, S., IWAI, M. & YOSHIOKA, H. 1983a Taxonomic studies of Penicillium II. Species in the section Exilicaulis. Transactions of the Mycological Society of Japan 24, 39–51.Google Scholar
  3. ABE, S., IWAI, M. & TANAKA, H. 1983b Taxonomic studies of Penicillium III. Species in the section Divaricatum. Transactions of the Mycological Society of Japan 24, 95–108.Google Scholar
  4. ABE, S., IWAI, M. & AWANO, M. 1983c Taxonomic studies of Penicillium IV. Species in the sections Divaricatum (continued) and Furcatum. Transactions of the Mycological Society of Japan 24, 109–120.Google Scholar
  5. ABE, S., IWAI, M. & ISHIKAWA, T. 1983d Taxonomic studies of Penicillium V. Species in the section Furcatum. Transactions of the Mycological Society of Japan 24, 409–418.Google Scholar
  6. AL-MUSALLAM, A. 1980 Revision of the Black Aspergillus Species. Dissertation. Utrecht, Netherlands: University of Utrecht.Google Scholar
  7. AINSWORTH, G. C., SPARROW, F. K. & SUSSMAN, A. S. 1973a The Fungi. An Advanced Treatise, Vol. 4A. A Taxonomic Review with Keys: Ascomycetes and Fungi Imperfecti. New York & London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  8. AINSWORTH, G. C., SPARROW, F. K. & SUSSMAN, A. S. 1973b The Fungi. An Advanced Treatise, Vol. 4B. A Taxonomic Review with Keys: Basidiomycetes and Lower Fungi. New York & London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  9. ALCORN, J. L. 1981 Generic concepts in Drechslera bipolaris and Exserophilum. Mycotaxon 17, 1–86.Google Scholar
  10. AMES, C. M. 1963 A monograph of the Chaetomiaceae. U. S. Army Res. Div., Ser. 2. 125 pp.Google Scholar
  11. BARNETT, H. L. & HUNTER, B. B. 1972 Illustrated Genera of Imperfect Fungi. Minneapolis: Burgess Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  12. BARNETT, J. A., PANE, R. W. & YARROW, D. 1983 Yeasts, Characteristics and Identification. Cambridge Univ. spress. 811 pp.Google Scholar
  13. BARRON, G. L. 1968 The Genera of Hyphomycetes From Soil. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins Co.Google Scholar
  14. BENEKE, E. S. & STEVENSON, K. E. 1978 Classification of food and beverage fungi. In Food and Beverage Mycology. ed. Beuchat, L. R. pp. 1–44. Westport: AVI Publ. Co.Google Scholar
  15. BENJAMIN, R. K. 1959 The merosporangiferous Mucorales. Aliso 4, 321–433.Google Scholar
  16. BENNY, G. L. & KIMBROUGH, J. W. 1980 A synopsis of the orders and families of Plectomycetes with keys to genera. Mycotaxon 12, 1–91.Google Scholar
  17. BENOIT, M. A. & MATHUR, S. B. 1970 Identification of species of Curvularia on rice seed. Proceedings of the International Seed Testing Association 35, 99–119.Google Scholar
  18. BEUCHAT, L. R. 1978 Food and Beverage Mycology. Westport: Avi Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  19. BLASER, P. 1975 Taxonomische and physiologische Untersuchungen Über die Gattung Eurotium Link. ex Fr. Sydowia 28, 1–49.Google Scholar
  20. BOEREMA, G. H., DORENBOSCH, M. M. & KESTEREN, H. A. van 1965 Remarks on species of Phoma referred to Peyronellaea I. Persoonia 4, 47–68.Google Scholar
  21. BOEREMA, G. H., DORENBOSCH, M. M. & KESTEREN, H. A. van 1971 Remarks on species of Phoma referred to Peyronellaea III. Persoonia 6, 171–177.Google Scholar
  22. BOEREMA, G. H. & DORENBOSCH, H. M. J. 1973 The Phoma and Ascocyta species described by Wollenweber and Hochapfel in their study on fruit-rotting. Studies in Mycology, Baarn 3, 1–50.Google Scholar
  23. BOOTH, C. 1971 The Genus Fusarium. Kew, Surrey: Commonwealth Mycological Institute.Google Scholar
  24. BROWN, A. H. S. & SMITH, G. 1957 The genus Paecilomyces Bainier and its perfect stage Byssochlamys Westling. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 40, 17–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. BURGESS, L. W. & LIDDELL, G. M. 1983 Laboratory Manual for Fusarium Research. Sidney: University of Sydney.Google Scholar
  26. CARMICHAEL, J. W., KENDRICK, W. B., CONNERS, I. L. & SIGLER, L. 1980 Genera of Hyphomycetes. Edmonton: University of Alberta Press.Google Scholar
  27. CHIDAMBARAM, P., MATHUR, S. B. & NEERGAARD, P. 1973 Identification of seed-borne Drechslera species. Friesia 10, 165–207.Google Scholar
  28. CHRISTENSEN, M. 1981 A synoptic key and evaluation of species in the Aspergillus flavus group. Mycologia 73, 1056–1084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. CHRISTENSEN, M. 1982 The Aspergillus ochraceus group: two new species from western soils and a synoptic key. Mycologia 74, 210–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. CHRISTENSEN, M. & STATES, J. S. 1982 Aspergillus nidulans group: Aspergillus navahoensis, and a revised synoptic key. Mycologia 74, 226–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. COLE, G. T. & SAMSON, R. A. 1979 Patterns of Development in Conidial Fungi. London: Pitman.Google Scholar
  32. DE HOOG, G. S. 1979 The Black Yeasts, II. Moniliella and allied genera. Studies in Mycology, Baarn 19, 1–34.Google Scholar
  33. DE HOOG, G. S. & HERMANDES-NIJHOF, E. J. 1977 Survey of the black yeasts and allied fungi. Studies in Mycology, Baarn 15, 170–221.Google Scholar
  34. DOMSCH, K. H., GAMS, W. & ANDERSON, T. H. 1980 Compendium of Soil Fungi. Vol. I & II. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  35. DORENBOSCH, M. M. J. 1970 Key to nine ubiquitous soil-borne Phoma-like fungi. Persoonia 6, 1–14.Google Scholar
  36. ELLIS, J. J., RHODES, I. H. & HESSELTINE, C. W. 1976 The genus Amylomyces. Mycologia 68, 131–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. ELLIS, M. B. 1960 Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes. Mycological Papers 76, 1–36.Google Scholar
  38. ELLIS, M. B. 1971 Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes. Kew, Surrey: Commonwealth Mycological Institute.Google Scholar
  39. ELLIS, M. B. 1976 More Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes. Kew, Surrey: Commonwealth Mycological Institute.Google Scholar
  40. FASSATIOVA, O. 1967 Notes on the genus Humicola. 2. Ceske Hykologia 21, 78–89Google Scholar
  41. FREDERICK, L., UECKER, F. A. & BENJAMIN, C. R. 1970 A new species of Neurospora from soil of West Pakistan. Mycologia 61, 1077–1084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. FRISVAD, J. C. & FILTENBORG, O. 1983 Classification of terverticillate Penicillia based on profiles of mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 46, 1301–1310.Google Scholar
  43. GAMS, W. 1971 Cephalosporium-artige Schimmelpilze (Hyphomycetes). Stuttgart: G. Fischer. 262 pp.Google Scholar
  44. GAMS, W., PLAATS-NITERIND, H. A. van der, SAMSON, R. A. & STALPERS, J. A. 1980 CBS Course in Mycology, 2. ed. Baarn, the Netherlands: Centralbureau voor Schimmelcultures.Google Scholar
  45. GERLACH, W. & NIRENBERG, H. 1982 The Genus Fusarium, A Pictorial Atlas. Mitt. Biol. Bundesanst. Land. u. Forstwissensch., Berlin-Dahlem. 406 pp.Google Scholar
  46. GILMAN, J. C. 1957 A Manual of Soil Fungi. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press.Google Scholar
  47. HANLIN, R. T. 1973 Keys to Families, Genera and Species of the Mucorales. Vaduz: J. Cramer Verlag.Google Scholar
  48. HAWKSWORTH, D. L. & PITT, J. I. 1983 A new taxonomy for Monascus species based on cultural and microscopical characters. Australian Journal of Botany 31, 51–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. HAWKSWORTH, D. L., SUTTON, B. C. & AINSWORTH, G. C. 1983 Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi. Kew, Surrey: Commonwealth Mycological Institute.Google Scholar
  50. HERMANIDES-NIJHOF, E. J. 1977 Aureobasidium and allied genera. Studies in Mycology, Baarn 15, 141–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. HESSELTINE, C. W. & ANDERSON, P. 1956 The genus Thamnidium and a study of the formation of its zygospores. American Journal of Botany 43, 696–702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. HESSELTINE, C. W. & ELLIS, J. J. 1973 Mucorales. In The Fungi Vol. IVb Ainsworth, G. C., Sparrow, F. K. & Sussman, A. S. pp. 187–217. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  53. HORIE, Y. 1980 Ascospore ornamentation and its application to the taxonomic re-evaluation in Emericella. Transactions of the Mycological Society of Japan 21, 483–493.Google Scholar
  54. ISAAC, I. 1967 Speciation of Verticillium. Annual Reviews of Phytopathology 5, 201–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. JARVIS, W. R. 1977 Botryotinia and Botrytis species. Taxonomy, physiology and pathogenicity. Canadian Department of Agriculture. Harrow, Monograph 15, 1–195.Google Scholar
  56. JARVIS, B., SEILER, D. A. L., OULD, A. J. L. & WILLIAMS, A. P. 1983 Observations on enumeration of moulds in food and feedingstuffs. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 55, 325–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. JONG, S. C. & DAVIS, E. E. 1976 Contributions to the knowledge of Stachybotrys and Memnoniella in culture. Mycotaxon 3, 409–485.Google Scholar
  58. KENDRICK, W. B. & CARMICHAEL, J. W. 1973 Hyphomycetes. In The Fungi Vol. IVa. ed. Ainsworth, G.C., Sparrow, F. K. & Sussman, A. S. pp. 323–509. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  59. KREGER-van RIJ, N. J. W. ed. 1984 The Yeasts. A Taxonomic Study. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  60. KULSHRESTHA, D. D., MATHUR, S. B. & NEERGAARD, P. 1976 Identification of seed-born species of Colletotrichum. Friesia 11, 116–125.Google Scholar
  61. LUNN, J. A. & SHIPTON, W. A. 1983 Re-evaluation of taxonomic criteria in Cunninghamella. Transactions of British Mycological Society 81: 303–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. MALLOCH, D. & CAIN, R. F. 1972 The Trichocomataceae: Ascomycetes with Aspergillus, Paecilomyces and Penicillium imperfect states. Canadian Journal of Botany 50, 2613–2628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. MISLEVIC, P. B. & BRUCE, V. R. 1977 Direct plating versus dilution plating qualitatively determining the mold flora of dried beans and soybeans. Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists 60, 741–743.Google Scholar
  64. MOREAU, C. 1979 Molds, Toxins and Food. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  65. MORQUER, R., VIALA, G., ROUCH, M. J. FAYRET, J. & BERGE, E. M. G. 1963 Contribution a 1’-etude morphogenigue du genre Gliocladium. Bulletin Trimestriel de la Societe Mycologique de France 79, 137–241.Google Scholar
  66. MORTON, F. J. & SMITH, G. 1963 The genera Scopulariopsis Bainier, Microascus Zukal, and Doratomyces Corda. Mycological Papers 86, 1–96.Google Scholar
  67. MATH, R., NEERGAARD, P. & MATHUR, S. B. 1970 Identification of Fusarium species on seeds as they occur in blotter test. Proceedings of the International Seed Testing Association 35, 121–144.Google Scholar
  68. NEERGAARD, P. 1945 Danish Species of Alternaria and Stemphylium. London: Oxford University Press. 560 pp.Google Scholar
  69. NELSON, P. E., TOUSSON, T. A. & MARASAS, W. F. O. 1983 Fusarium Species. An Illustrated Manual for Identification. University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
  70. NGUYEN, T. H., NEERGAARD, P. & MATHUR, S. B. 1973 Seed-borne species of Myrothecium and their pathogenic potential. Transactions of the Brithish Mycological Society 61, 347–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. NIRENBERG, H. 1981 A simplified method for identifying Fusarium spp. occuring on wheat. Canadian Journal of Botany 59, 1599–1609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. O’DONNELL, K. L. 1979 Zygomycetes in culture, Palfrey Contributions in Botany 2. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia.Google Scholar
  73. ONIONS, A. H. S., ALLSOPP, D. & EGGINS, H. O. W. 1981 Smith’s Introduction to Industrial Mycology. London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
  74. PITT, J. I. 1966 Two new species of Chrysosporium. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 49, 467–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. PITT, J. I. 1979 The Genus Penicillium and its Teleomorphic States. Eupenicillium and Talaromyces. London: Academic Press. 634 pp.Google Scholar
  76. PITT, J. I. 1985 Laboratory Guide to Common Penicillium species. North Ryde, N.S.W.: CSIRO Division of Food Research.Google Scholar
  77. PITT, J. I. & HOCKING, A. D. 1982 Food spoilage fungi. I. Xeromyces bisporus Fraser. CSIRO Food Research Quarterly 42, 1–6.Google Scholar
  78. PITT, J. I. & HOCKING, A. D. 1985 Fungi and Food Spoilage. Sydney: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  79. PUNITHALINGAM, E. 1979 Graminicolous Ascochyta species. Mycological Papers 142, 1–214.Google Scholar
  80. RAMIREZ, C. 1982 Manual and Atlas of the Penicillia. Amsterdam: Elsevier Biomedical Press. 847 pp.Google Scholar
  81. RAPER, K. B. & THOM, C. 1949 A Manual of the Penicillia. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins Co.Google Scholar
  82. RAPER, K. B. & FENNELL, D. I. 1965 The Genus Aspergillus. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins Co.Google Scholar
  83. RIFAI, M. A. 1969 A Revision of the Genus Trichoderma. Mycological Papers 116: 1–56.Google Scholar
  84. RIFAI, M. A. & COOK, R. C. 1966 Studies on some didymosporous genera of nematode trapping Hyphomycetes. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 49, 147–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. SAMSON R. A. 1969 Revision of the genus Cunninghamella ( Fungi, Mucorales). Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, ser. C 72, 322–335.Google Scholar
  86. SAMSON, R. A. 1974 Paecilomyces and some allied Hyphomycetes. Studies in Mycology, Baarn 6, 1–119.Google Scholar
  87. SAMSON, R. A. 1979 A compilation of the Aspergilli described since 1965. Studies in Mycology, Baarn 18, 1–40.Google Scholar
  88. SAMSON, R. A., STOLK, A. C. & HADLOK, R. 1976 Revision of the subsection Fasciculata of Penicillium and some allied species. Studies in Mycology, Baarn 11, 1–47.Google Scholar
  89. SAMSON, R. A., ECKHARDT, C. & ORTH, R. 1977a The taxonomy of Penicillium species from fermented cheeses. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 43, 341–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. SAMSON, R. A., HADLOK, R. & STOLK, A. C. 1977b A taxonomic study of the Penicillium chrysogenum series. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 43, 261–274.Google Scholar
  91. SAMSON, R. A., HOEKSTRA, E. S. & van OORSCHOT, C. A. N. 1984 Introduction to Food-Borne Fungi. 2nd ed. Baarn, the Netherlands: Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures. 1984.Google Scholar
  92. SAMSON, R. A., & PITT, J. I. 1985 Advances in Penicillum and Aspergillus Systematics. London: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  93. SAMUELS, G. J. 1984 Toxigenic fungi as Ascomycetes. In Toxigenic fungi. Their Toxins and Health Hazard ed. Kurata, H. & Ueno, Y. Developments in Food Science 7. pp. 119–128. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  94. SCHIPPER, M. A. A. 1973 A study on variability in Mucor hiemalis and related species. Studies in Mycology, Baarn 4, 1–40.Google Scholar
  95. SCHIFFER, M. A. A. 1975 On Mucor mucedo, Mucor flavus and related species. Studies in Mycology, Baarn 10, 1–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. SCHIPPER, M. A. A. 1976 On Mucor circinelloides, Mucor racemosus and related species. Studies in Mycology, Baarn 12, 1–40.Google Scholar
  97. SCHIPPER, M. A. A. 1978 1. On certain species of Mucor with a key to all accepted species. 2. On the genera Rhizomucor and Parasitella. Studies in Mycology, Baarn 17, 1–70.Google Scholar
  98. SCHIPPER, M. A. A. 1984. A revision of the genus Rhizopus I. The Rh. Stolonifer-group and Rh. oryzae. Studies in Mycology, Baarn 25, 1–19.Google Scholar
  99. SCHIPPER, M. A. A. & STALPERS, J. A. 1984 A revision of the genus Rhizopus II. The Rhizopus microsporus-group. Studies in Mycology, Baarn 25, 19–34.Google Scholar
  100. SCHOL-SCHWARTZ, M. B. 1970 Revision of the genus Phialophora ( Moniliades ). Persoonia 6, 59–94.Google Scholar
  101. SEKITA, S., YOSHIHIRA, K., NATORI, S., UDAGAWA, S., MUROI, T., SUGIYAMA, Y., KURATA, H. & UMEDA, M. 1979 Mycotoxin production by Chaetomium spp. and related fungi. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 27, 766–772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. SIGLER, L. & CARMICHAEL, J. W. 1976 Taxonomy of Malbranchea and some other Hyphomycetes with arthroconidia. Mycotaxon 4, 349–488.Google Scholar
  103. SIMMONS, E. G. 1967 Typification of Alternaria, Stemphylium and Ulocladium. Mycologia 59, 67–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. STEVENS, R. B. (ed.) 1974 Mycology Guidebook. Washington: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
  105. STOLK, A. C. & SAMSON, R. A. 1971 Studies in Talaromyces and related genera. I. Hamigera gen nov. and Byssochlamys. Persoonia 6, 341–357.Google Scholar
  106. STOLK, A. C. & SAMSON, R. A. 1972 The genus Talaromyces. Studies on Talaromyces and related genera. II. Studies in Mycology, Baarn 2, 1–65.Google Scholar
  107. STOLK, A. C. & SAMSON, R. A. 1983 The ascomycetes genus Eupenicillium and related Penicillium anamorphs. Studies in Mycology, Baarn 23, 1–149.Google Scholar
  108. SUBRAMANIAN, C. V. 1971 Hyphomycetes, An Account of Indian Species, Except Cercosporae. New Delhi: Indian Council of Agricultural Research.Google Scholar
  109. SUTTON, B. C. 1980 The Coelomycetes, Fungi Imperfecti with Pycnidia, Acervuli and Stromata. Kew, Surrey: Commonwealth Mycological Institute.Google Scholar
  110. TUITE, J. 1969 Plant Pathological Methods. Minneapolis: Burgess.Google Scholar
  111. TULLOCH, M. 1972 The genus Myrothecium. Mycological Papers 130, 1–42.Google Scholar
  112. UDAGAWA, S., MUROI, T., KURATA, H., SEKITA, S., YOSHIHIRA, K., NATORI, S. & UMEDA, M. 1979 The production of chaetoglobosins, sterigmatocystin, omethylsterimatocystin and chaetocin by Chaetomium spp. and related fungi. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 25, 170–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. UDAGAWA, S. 1984 Taxonomy of mycotoxin-producing Chaetomium. In Toxigenic fungi. Their Toxins and Health Hazard ed Kurata, H. & Ueno, Y. pp. 139–167. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  114. VAN OORSCHOT, C. A. N. 1980 A revision of Chrysosporium and allied genera. Studies in Mycology, Baarn 20, 1–89.Google Scholar
  115. VON ARX, J. A. 1957 Die Arten der Gattung Colletotrichum Cda. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift 29, 413–468.Google Scholar
  116. VON ARX, J. A. 1977 Notes on Dipodascus, Endomyces and Geotrichum with the description of two new species. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 43, 333–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. VON ARX, J. A. 1981a The Genera of Fungi Sporulating in Pure Culture. 3rd edition. Vaduz: J. Cramer Verlag.Google Scholar
  118. VON ARX, J. A. 1981b On Monilia sitophila and some families of Ascomycetes. Sydowia 34, 13–29.Google Scholar
  119. VON ARX, J. A., DREYFUSS, M. & MULLER, E. 1984 A revaluation of Chaetomium and the Chaetomiaceae. Persoonia 12, 169–179.Google Scholar
  120. VRIES, de G. A. 1952 Contribution to the Knowledge of the Genus Cladosporium. Diss. Univ. Utrecht, Reprint J. Cramer Lehre (1967).Google Scholar
  121. WYLLIE, T. D. & MOREHOUSE, L. G. 1977 Mycotoxic Fungi, Mycotoxins, Mycotoxicoses. Vol. 1. New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
  122. ZYCHA, H., SIEPMANN, R. & LINNEMANN, G. 1969 Mucorales. Eine Beschreibung, aller Gattungen und Arten dieser Pilzgruppe. Lehre: J. Cramer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  123. ABE, S. 1956 Studies on the classification of the Penicillia. Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 2, 1–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. AL-MUSALLAM, A. 1980 Revision of the black Aspergillus species. Utrecht: University of Utrecht. Dissertation. 92 pp.Google Scholar
  125. BLASER, P. 1975 Taxonomische und physiologishce Untersuchungen Über die Gattung Eurotium Link ex Fr. Sydowia 28, 1–49.Google Scholar
  126. BOOTH, C. 1971 The Genus Fusarium. Kew, Surrey: Commonwealth Mycological Institute. 237 pp.Google Scholar
  127. BURGESS, L. W. & LIDDELL, C. M. 1983 Laboratory Manual for Fusarium Research. Sydney: University of Sydney. 162 pp.Google Scholar
  128. CHRISTENSEN, M. 1981 A synoptic key and evaluation of the Aspergillus flavus group. Mycologia 75, 1056–1084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. CHRISTENSEN, M. 1982 The Aspergillus ochraceus group: two new species from western soils and a synoptic key. Mycologia 744, 210–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. CHRISTENSEN, M. & STATES, J. S. 1982 Aspergillus nidulans group: Aspergillus navahoensis, and a revised synoptic key. Mycologia 74, 226–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. DOMSCH, K. H., GAMS, W. & ANDERSON, T. H. 1980 Compendium of Soil Fungi. Vol. I & II. London: Academic Press. 859 + 405 pp.Google Scholar
  132. ENGEL, G. & TEUBER, M. 1978 Simple aid in the identification of Penicillium roqueforti Thom. Growth in acetic acid. European Journal of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 6, 107–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. FILTENBORG, O. & FRISVAD, J. C. 1980 A simple screening-method for toxigenic molds in pure cultures. Lebensmittel Wissenschaft und Technologie 13, 128–130.Google Scholar
  134. FILTENBORG, O., FRISVAD, J. C. & SVENDSEN, J. A. 1983 Simple screening method for moulds producing intracellular mycotoxins in pure cultures. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 45, 581–585.Google Scholar
  135. FRANK, H. K. 1966 Ein Beitrag zur Taxonomie der Gattung Penicillium Link. München: Technische Hochschule Munchen. Dissertation. 109 + 59 pp.Google Scholar
  136. FRISVAD, J. C. 1981 Physiological criteria and mycotoxin production as aids in the identification of common asymmetric penicillia. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 41, 568–579.Google Scholar
  137. FRISVAD, J. C. 1983 A selective and indicative medium for groups of Penicillium viridicatum producing differenct mycotoxins in cereals. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 54, 409–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. FRISVAD, J. C. 1984 Expressions of secondary metabolism as fundamental characters in Penicillium taxonomy. In Toxigenic Fungi. Their Toxins and Health Hazard. ed. Kurata, H. & Ueno, Y. pp. 98–106. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  139. FRISVAD, J. C. & FILTENBORG, 0. 1983 Classification of terverticillate Penicillia based on profiles of mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 46, 1301–1310.Google Scholar
  140. GERLACH, W. & NIRENBERG, H. 1982 The Genus Fusarium, A Pictorial Atlas. Metteilungen aus der Biologischen Bundesanstalt für Land- und Forstwirtschaft Berlin-Dalem 209, 1–406.Google Scholar
  141. HARVAN, D. J. & PERO, R. W. 1976 The structure and toxicity of the Alternaria metabolites. In Mycotoxins and Other Fungal Related Food Problems. ed. Rodricks, J. V. pp. 344–355. Advances in Chemistry Series 149. Washington D. C.: American Chemical Society.Google Scholar
  142. JOLY, P. 1969 Essais d’application de méthodes de traitement numériques des information systématiques. I. Etude du groupe des Alternaria sensu lato. Bulletin Trimestriel de la Societe Mycologie Francais 85, 213–233.Google Scholar
  143. MARASAS, W. F. O., NELSON, P. E. & TOUSSOUN, T. A. 1984 Toxigenic Fusarium Species: Identity and Mycotoxicology. University Park, Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
  144. MURAKAMI, H., YOSHIDA, K. & NORO, F. 1979 Tables of mycological characters of the representative strains of the black Aspergilli. Journal of the Brewing Society, Japan 74, 466–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. NEERGAARD, P. 1945 Danish species of Alternaria and Stemphylium. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  146. NEERGAARD, P. 1977 Seed Pathology. Vol. I & I I. London: The MacMillan Press.Google Scholar
  147. NELSON, P. A., TOUSSOUN, T. A. & COOK, R. J. 1981 Fusarium: Diseases, Biology, and Taxonomy. University Park, Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvannia State University Press.Google Scholar
  148. NIETHAMMER, A. 1949 Die Gattung Penicillium Link. Stuttgart: Verlag Eugen Ulmer.Google Scholar
  149. PITT, J. I. 1973 An appraisal of identification methods for Penicillium species: novel taxonomic criteria based on temperature and water relations. Mycologia 65, 1135–1157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. PITT, J. I. 1979 The Genus Penicillium and its Teleomorphic States Eupenicillum and Talaromyces. London, New York, Toronto, Sydney, San Francisco: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  151. PITT, J. I. 1984 The value of physiological characters in the taxonomy of Penicillium. In Toxigenic Fungi. Their Toxins and Health Hazard. ed. Kurata, H. & Ueno, Y. pp. 107–118. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  152. RAPER, K. B. & FENNELL, D. I. 1965 The Genus Aspergillus. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins Co.Google Scholar
  153. RAPER, K. B. & THOM, C. 1949 A Manual of the Penicillia. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins Co.Google Scholar
  154. REISS, J. 1983 Alternaria mycotoxins in grains and bread. Zeitschrift für Lebensmittel Untersuchung and Forschung, 176, 36–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. SAMSON, R. A., ECKARDT, C. & ORTH, R. 1977a The taxonomy of Penicillium species from fermented cheeses. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 43, 341–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. SAMSON, R. A., HADLOK, R. & STOLK, A. C. 1977b A taxonomic study of the Penicillium chrysogenum series. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 43, 261–274.Google Scholar
  157. SAMSON, R. A., STOLK, A. C. & HADLOCK, R. 1976 Revision of the subsection Fasciculata of Penicillium and some allied species. Studies in Mycology, Baarn 11, 1–47.Google Scholar
  158. SIMMONS, E. G. 1981 Alternaria themes and variations. Mycotaxon 13, 16–34.Google Scholar
  159. SIMMONS, E. G. 1982 Alternaria themes and variations. Mycotaxon 14, 17–43 & 44–57.Google Scholar
  160. STOLK, A. C. & SAMSON, R. A. 1983 The ascomycete genus Eupenicillium and related Penicillium anamorphs. Studies in Mycology, Baarn 23, 1–149.Google Scholar
  161. SÖDERSTRÖM, B. & FRISVAD, J. C. 1984 Separation of closely related asymmetric Penicillia by pyrolysis gas chromatography and mycotoxin production. Mycologia 76, 408–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. TURNER, W. B. 1971 Fungal Metabolites. London: Academic Press. 446 pp.Google Scholar
  163. TURNER, W. B. & ALDRIDGE, D. C. 1983 Fungal Metabolites II. London &’New York: Academic Press. 631 pp.Google Scholar
  164. VESONDER, R. F. & HESSELTINE, C. W. 1981 Metabolites of Fusarium. In Fusarium: Diseases, Biology, and Taxonomy. ed. Nelson, P. E., Toussoun, T. A. & Cook, R. J. pp. 350–364. University Park, Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
  165. BARNETT, J. A. & PANKHURST, R. J. 1974 A New Key to The Yeasts Amsterdam: North-Holland Publ. Co.Google Scholar
  166. BARNETT, J. A., PAYNE, R. W. & YARROW, D. 1979 A Guide to Identifying and Classifying Yeasts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  167. BARNETT, J. A., PAYNE, R. W. & YARROW, D. 1983 Yeasts: Characteristics and Identification. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  168. BUHAGIAR, R. W. M. & BARNETT, J. A. 1971 The yeasts of strawberries. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 34, 729–739.Google Scholar
  169. DAVENPORT, R. R. 1979 Experimental ecology and identification of microorganisms. In Identification Methods for Microbiologists, Society of Applied Bacteriologists Technical Series No. 14, 2nd ed. pp. 258–277. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  170. FUCHS, P. C. & DOLAN, T. 1982 Performance of yeast identification systems. American Journal of Clinical Pathology 78, 664–667.Google Scholar
  171. GOWER, J. C. & BARNETT, J. A. 1971 Selecting tests in diagnostic keys with unknown responses. Nature, London 232, 491–493.Google Scholar
  172. KREGER VAN RIJ, N. J. W., ed. 1984 The Yeasts. A Taxonomic Study 3rd ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier Sci. Publ.Google Scholar
  173. LODDER, J., ed. 1970 The Yeasts. A Taxonomic Study 2nd ed. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publ. Co.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. A. Samson
  • J. C. Frisvad
  • O. Filtenborg
  • T. Deák

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations