Advertisement

Media for Yeasts and Consideration of Injured Cells

  • R. B. Ferguson
  • D. A. L. Seiler
  • C. B. Anderson
  • L. J. Moberg
  • T. Deák
  • V. Nagel
  • I. Fabri
  • L. R. Beuchat
  • J. A. Koburger
  • R. A. Dargan
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 122)

Abstract

A great variety of media are available for enumeration of yeasts and molds in foods. Many of these have evolved from empirical studies, while others have been formulated for analysis of specific types of foods, e.g., grains and flours, fruits or processed foods. Only a relatively few media are available specifically for enumerating or at least facilitating the growth of yeasts at the expense of molds and bacteria.

Keywords

Thermal Injury Environmental Microbiology Rose Bengal Yeast Population Food Protection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. BEUCHAT, L. R. 1979 Comparison of acidified and antibiotic supplemented potato dextrose agar from three manufacturers for its capacity to recover fungi from foods. Journal of Food Protection 42, 427–428.Google Scholar
  2. HENSON, O. E. 1981 Dichloran as an inhibitor of mold spreading in fungal plating media: effects on colony diameter and enumeration. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 42, 656–660.Google Scholar
  3. JARVIS, B. 1973 Comparison of an improved rose bengal chlortetracycline agar with other media for the selective isolation and enumeration of moulds and yeasts in foods. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 36, 723–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. KING, A. D., HOCKING, A. D. and PITT, J. I. 1979 Dichloran–rose bengal medium for enumeration and isolation of molds from foods. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 37, 959–964.Google Scholar
  5. KOBURGER, J. A. 1971 Fungi in foods II. Some observations on acidulants used to adjust media pH for yeast and mold counts. Journal of Milk and Food Technology 34, 475–477.Google Scholar
  6. KOBURGER, J. A. and RODGERS, M. F. 1978 Single or multiple antibiotic-amended media to enumerate yeasts and molds. Journal of Food Protection 41, 367–369.Google Scholar
  7. MOSSEL, D. A. A., VISSER, M. and MENGERINK, W. H. J. 1962 A comparison of media for the enumeration of moulds and yeasts in foods and beverages. Laboratory Practice 11, 109–112.Google Scholar
  8. MOSSEL, D. A. A., KLEYNEN-SEMMELING, A. M. C., VINCENTIE, H. M., BEERENS, H. and CATSAVAS, M. 1970 Oxytetracycline-glucose-yeast extract agar for selective enumeration of moulds and yeasts in foods and clinical material.Google Scholar
  9. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 33, 454–457.Google Scholar
  10. MOSSEL, D. A. A., VEGA, C. L. and PUT, H. M. C. 1975 Further studies on the suitability of various media containing antibacterial antibiotics for enumeration of moulds in food and food environments. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 39, 15–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. OVERCAST, W. W. and WEAKLEY, D. J. 1969 An aureomycin rose bengal agar for enumeration of yeasts and molds in cottage cheese. Journal of Milk and Food Technology 32, 422–445.Google Scholar
  12. CHRISTENSEN. C. M. 1946 The quantitative determination of molds in flour. Cereal Chemistry 23, 322–329.Google Scholar
  13. HOCKING, A. D. and PITT, J. I. 1980 Dichloran-glycerol medium for enumeration of xerophilic fungi from low moisture foods. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 39, 488–492.Google Scholar
  14. PITT, J. I. 1975 Xerophilic fungi and the spoilage of foods of plant origin. In Water Relations of Foods ed. Duckworth, R. pp. 273–307. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  15. SEILER, D. A. L. 1980 Yeast spoilage of bakery products. In Biology and Activities of Yeasts ed. Skinner, F. A., Passmore, S. M., and Davenport, R. R. pp. 135–152. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  16. TILBURY, R. H. 1976 The microbial stability of intermediate moisture foods with respect to yeasts. In Intermediate Moisture Foods ed. Davies, R.Google Scholar
  17. Birch, G. G., and Parker, K. J. pp. 138–165. London: Applied Science Publishers.Google Scholar
  18. TILBURY, R. H. 1980 Xerotolerant (osmophilic) yeasts. In Biology and Activities of Yeasts ed. Skinner, F. A., Passmore, S. M., and Davenport, R. R. pp. 153–186. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  19. JARVIS, B. 1973 Comparison of an improved rose bengal-chlortetracycline agar with other media for the selective isolation and enumeration of molds and yeasts in foods. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 36, 723–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. KING, A. D., HOCKING, A. D. and PITT, J. I. 1979 Dichloran-rose Bengal medium for enumeration and isolation of molds from foods. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 37, 959–964.Google Scholar
  21. KOBURGER, J. A. and FARHAT, B. Y. 1975 Fungi in foods. VI. A comparison of media to enumerate yeasts and molds. Journal of Milk and Food Technology 38, 466–468.Google Scholar
  22. KOBURGER, J. A. 1971 Fungi in foods. II. Some observations on acidulants used to adjust media pH for yeast and mold counts. Journal of Milk and Food Technology 34, 475–477.Google Scholar
  23. LADIGES, W. C., FOSTER, J. F. and JORGENSON, J. J. 1974 Comparison of media for enumerating fungi in precooked frozen convenience foods. Journal of Milk and Food Technology 37, 302–304.Google Scholar
  24. MOSSEL, D. A. A., KLEYNEN-SEMMELING, A. M. C., VINCENTIE, H. M., BEERENS, H. and CATSARAS, M. 1970 Oxytetracycline-glucose yeast extract agar for selective enumeration of moulds and yeasts in foods and clinical material. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 36, 454–457.Google Scholar
  25. MOSSEL, D. A. A., VEGA, C. L. and PUT, H. M. 1975 Further studies on the suitability of various media containing antibacterial antibiotics for the enumeration of moulds in foods and food environments. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 39, 15–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. U.S. FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION. 1978 Bacteriological Analytical Manual. 5th edn. Arlington: Association of Official Analytical Chemists.Google Scholar
  27. ADAMS, G. H. and ORDAL, Z. J. 1976 Effects of thermal stress and reduced water activity on conidia of Aspergillus parasiticus. Journal of Food Science 41, 547–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. BALDY, B. W., SOMMER, N. F. and BUCKLEY, P. M. 1970 Recovery of viability and radiation resistance by heat-injured conidia of Penicillium expansum Lk ex Thom. Journal of Bacteriology 102, 514–520.Google Scholar
  29. BANK, H. 1973 Visualization of freezing damage. II. Structural alterations during warming. Cryobiology 10, 157–170.Google Scholar
  30. BEUCHAT, L. R. 1981 Influence of potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate on heat inactivation of Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium puberulum and Geotrichum candidum. Journal of Food Protection 44, 450–454.Google Scholar
  31. BEUCHAT, L. R. 1982 Effects of environmental stress in recovery media on colony formation by sublethally heat-treated Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 78, 536–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. BEUCHAT, L. R. and JONES, W. K. 1978 Effects of food preservatives and antioxidants on colony formation by heated conidia of Aspergillus flavus. Acta Alimentaria, Hungarian Academy of Science 7, 373–384.Google Scholar
  33. CONNER, D. E. and BEUCHAT, L. R. 1984 Sensitivity of heat-stressed yeasts to essential oils of plants. Applied Environmental Microbiology 47, 229–233.Google Scholar
  34. EUBANKS, V. L. and BEUCHAT, L. R. 1982 Increased sensitivity of heat-stressed Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells to food-grade antioxidants. Applied Environmental Microbiology 44, 604–610.Google Scholar
  35. FRIES, N. 1969 Induced salt sensitivity in fungal cells and its reversal with imidazole derivatives. Journal of Bacteriology 100, 1424–1425.Google Scholar
  36. GRAUMLICH, T. R. 1981 Survival and recovery of thermally stressed yeast in orange juice. Journal of Food Science 46, 1410–1411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. GRAUMLICH, T. R. and STEVENSON, K. E. 1978 Recovery of thermally injured Saccharomyces cerevisiae: effects of media and storage conditions. Journal of Food Science 43, 1865–1870.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. HAGLER, A. N. and LEWIS, M. J. 1974 Effect of glucose on thermal injury of yeast that may define the maximum temperature of growth. Journal of General Microbiology 80, 101–109.Google Scholar
  39. KOBURGER, J. A. 1970 Fungi in foods. I. Effects of inhibitor and incubation temperature on enumeration. Journal of Milk and Food Technology 33, 433–434.Google Scholar
  40. MACE F. E. and KOBURGER, J. A. 1967 Effect of pH on recovery of fungi from foods. Proceedings of the West Virginia Academy of Science 39, 102–106.Google Scholar
  41. MAZUR, P. 1966 Physical and chemical basis of injury in single-celled microorganisms subjected to freezing and thawing. In Cryobiology ed. Meryman, H. T. pp. 214–315. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  42. MAZUR, P. and SCHMIDT, J. J. 1968 Interactions of cooling velocity, temperature, and warming velocity on the survival of frozen and thawed yeasts. Cryobiology 5, 1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. MENEGAZZI, G. S. and INGLEDEW, W. H. 1980 Heat processing of spent brewer’s yeast. Journal of Food Science 45, 182–186, 196.Google Scholar
  44. NASH, C. H. and SINCLAIR, N. A. 1968 Thermal injury and death in an obligately psychrophilic yeast, Candida nivalis. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 14, 691–697.Google Scholar
  45. NELSON, F. E. 1972 Plating medium pH as a factor in apparent survival of sublethally stressed yeasts. Applied Microbiology 24, 236–239.Google Scholar
  46. PADWAL-DESAI, S. R., GHANEKAR, A. S. and SREENIVASAN, A. 1976 Studies on Aspergillus flavus. I. Factors influencing radiation resistance on non-germinating conidia. Environmental and Experimental Botany 16, 45–51.Google Scholar
  47. SCHENBERG-FRASCINO, A. 1972 Lethal and mutagenic effects of elevated temperature on haploid yeast. II. Recovery from thermolesions. Molecular Genetics 117, 239–253.Google Scholar
  48. SHIBASAKI, I., and TSUCHIDO, T. 1973 Enhancing effect of chemicals on the thermal injury of microorganisms. Acta Alimentaria, Hungarian Academy of Science 2, 327–349.Google Scholar
  49. SOMMER, N. F., CREASEY, M. T., ROMANI, R. J. and MAXIE, E. C. 1963 Recovery of gamma irradiated Rhizopus stolonifer sporangiospores during auto-inhibition of germination. Journal of Cell Physiology 61, 93–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. SOUZU, H. 1967 Location of polyphosphate and polyphosphatase in yeast cells and damage to the protoplasmic membrane of the cell by freeze-thawing. Archives in Biochemistry and Biophysics 120, 344–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. STEVENSON, K. E. and RICHARDS, L. J. 1976 Thermal injury and recovery of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Journal of Food Science 41, 136–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. TANAKA, Y. and MIYATAKE, M. 1975 Studies on the injury of yeasts in frozen dough. Part I. Effect of prefermentation before freezing on the injury of yeast. Journal of Food Science and Technology (Tokyo) 22, 366–371.Google Scholar
  53. TSUCHIDO, T., OKAZAKI, H. and SHIBASKI, I. 1972 Enhancing effect of chemicals on the thermal injury of microorganisms (II). Mechanism of the enhancing effect on sorbic acid upon the thermal injury of Candida utilis. Journal of Fermentation Technology 50, 341–348.Google Scholar
  54. AMERICAN PUBLIC HEALTH ASSOCIATION. 1976 In Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods ed. Speck, M. L. Washington, D.C.: American Public Health Association.Google Scholar
  55. COLLEE, J. G., KNOWLDEN, J. A. and HOBBS, B. C. 1961 Studies on the growth, sporulation and carriage of Clostridium welchii with special reference to food poisoning strains. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 24, 236–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. GOMEZ, R. F. and SINSKEY, A. J. 1973 Deoxyribonucleic acid breaks in heated Salmonella typhimurium LT-2 after exposure to nutritionally complex media. Journal of Bacteriology 115, 522–528.Google Scholar
  57. HOCKING, A. D. and PITT, J. I. 1980 Dichloran-glycerol medium for enumeration of xerophilic fungi from low-moisture foods. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 39, 488–492.Google Scholar
  58. KOBURGER, J. A. and RODGERS, H. F. 1979 Effect of glucose concentration on recovery of fungi from foods. Journal of Food Protection 42, 249–250.Google Scholar
  59. MEAD, G. C. 1969 Growth and sporulation of Clostridium welchii in breast and leg muscle of poultry. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 32, 86–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. POSTGATE, J. R. and HUNTER, J. R. 1963 Acceleration of bacterial death by growth substrates. Nature 198, 273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. SHOEMAKER, S. P. and PEIRSON, H. D. 1976 “Phoenix Phenomenon” in the growth of Clostridium perfringens. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 32, 803–807.Google Scholar
  62. STEVENSON, K. E. and GRAUMLICH, T. R. 1978 Injury and recovery of yeasts and molds. Advances in Applied Microbiology 23, 203–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. RAY, B. 1979 Detection of stressed microorganisms. Journal of Food Protection 42, 346–355.Google Scholar
  64. READ, R. B. 1979. Detection of stressed microorganisms--Implications for regulatory monitoring. Journal of Food Protection 42, 368–369.Google Scholar
  65. VAN SCHOTHORST, M., VAN LEUSDEN, F. H., DE GIER, E., RIJNIERSE, V. F. M. and VEEN, A. J. D. 1979 Influence of reconstitution on isolation of Salmonella from dried milk. Journal of Food Protection 42, 936–937.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. B. Ferguson
  • D. A. L. Seiler
  • C. B. Anderson
  • L. J. Moberg
  • T. Deák
  • V. Nagel
  • I. Fabri
  • L. R. Beuchat
  • J. A. Koburger
  • R. A. Dargan

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations